The War of 1812 Mrs. Ingram
Gearing Up for War • Jefferson ended the embargo just before he left office in 1808. • Congress replaced it with the Nonintercourse Act of 1809. • Trade would resume with whomever lifted shipping restrictions on the U.S. • A year later, Macon’s Bill #2 was passed to further entice trade. • Not only would the U.S. resume trade with the country who lifted restrictions, but they would refuse to trade with the opposing country.
War Hawks • Young politicians who called for war were known as War Hawks. These men wanted to pursue war as a means of regaining national honor lost by impressment. • They believed attacking Canada was the best option because it was sparsely populated and it would cut off the weapons supply to Native Americans in the West. • Once they had taken Canada, they believed it could be used as leverage to gain greater maritime access.
War Breaks Out • Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war in June, 1812. The country was divided over war, though, so it did not have overwhelming support. • Support for the war waxed and waned as the U.S. military encountered both successes and failures on the battlefield. • Successes defeat over the Native Americans; naval victories (esp. on Lake Erie) • Failures were never able to invade Canada; were forced to surrender Detroit at the beginning of the war; British burned Washington D.C.
Significant Battles • Battle of Fort McHenry • After the British had burned D.C., they turned their attention to Baltimore (where Fort McHenry was located). They were unable to capture the fort. • This is the battle were Francis Scott Key penned the poem which would later become the Star Spangled Banner. • Battle of New Orleans • Considered the greatest victory of the War of 1812; took place in January of 1815… the war had been over for two weeks. • Andrew Jackson became a noted war veteran for the heavy casualties suffered by the British (2,036 to 71).
Treaty of Ghent • Both sides’ military failures made it difficult to justify continuing as the war progressed. • The two sides decided to revert to prewar boundaries, with each side ‘returning’ territory seized during the war. • They also agreed to set up a commission to settle all further boundary disputes. • Many Americans saw the Treaty of Ghent as an outright victory because news came so quickly after word of Jackson’s victory at New Orleans.
Hartford Convention • During the war, many New England Federalists spoke out openly against the war. • They convened in Hartford to discuss whether or not they should secede and make peace with Britain on their own. • Instead of secession, they demanded amendments be put in place to strengthen the power of New England states. • Their demands were received just as the war ended– making them laughable to the American public. • Support for the Federalist Party declined and in a few years, the party no longer existed.
Cause and Effect of the War of 1812 Causes Effects Demonstrated a need for a strong standing army/navy Spurred American nationalism Eventual demise of the Federalist Party Eventual acquisition of Florida • Britain interfered with U.S. shipping • British interference in American expansion westward (arming Native Americans) • Southerners want Florida (held by Britain’s ally, Spain) • War Hawks want Britain completely out of N. America