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Oral Health

Oral Health. Jennifer Musante. Lesson Objectives. Have an understanding of oral health Importance of dental check-ups Identify oral health problems like gum disease that can affect overall health Determine how often to see the dentist

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Oral Health

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  1. Oral Health Jennifer Musante

  2. Lesson Objectives • Have an understanding of oral health • Importance of dental check-ups • Identify oral health problems like gum disease that can affect overall health • Determine how often to see the dentist • Know the importance of oral health care for not only yourself but for the baby and small children

  3. Oral Health • The health of our TEETH + GUMS + TONGUE • Taking good care of your oral health can prevent disease in your mouth • Nearly one-third of all adults in the United States have untreated tooth decay • One in seven adults aged 35 to 44 years has gum disease; this increases to one in every four adults aged 65 years and older • Oral cancers are most common in older adults, particularly those over 55 years who smoke and are heavy drinkers

  4. Oral HealthOral health can affect the health of your entire body TRUE • Diseases and conditions of the mouth have a direct impact on the health of the entire body • The health of your mouth can be a sign of your body's health • Mouth problems are not just cavities, toothaches, and crooked or stained teeth • Many diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, HIV, cancer, and some eating disorders are linked with oral health problems

  5. Oral Health & Pregnancy Oral Health is especially important during pregnancy: • Frequent eating • Hormonal changes • More likely to develop red, puffy gums • Additional amount of the hormone progesterone in the body causes a strong reaction to normal amounts of plaque • Gums may be sensitive

  6. Oral HealthSmoking or using tobacco products accelerates the chance for tooth loss TRUE The use of tobacco increases your risk of: • Oral bacterial infection & periodontal disease • Bad breath, or halitosis • Tooth staining and discoloration • Inflammation of the soft tissues in the mouth • ‘dry mouth' • Accelerated buildup of plaque and tartar • Oral and throat cancer • Tooth loss

  7. Most Common Oral Health ProblemsThe most common oral health problems are cavities and gum disease Cavities • chalky white and/or brown holes on your teeth • Bacteria in your mouth make acids and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost layer of the tooth (enamel) Gum diseases • Gum diseases are infections caused by bacteria, along with mucus and other particles that form a sticky plaque on your teeth. Plaque that is left on teeth hardens and forms tartar

  8. Oral HealthMothers can spread cavity-causing germs that may affect their baby’s teeth TRUE • Cavity-causing germs can be transmitted through contact – like when baby puts hands in your mouth, and then in his or her own mouth • Research has shown that since a pregnant woman shares blood with her unborn baby, any infection of the mouth – such as a cavity or gum (periodontal) disease – can affect the baby

  9. Oral HealthGingivitis Signs of the first stage of the gum disease - gingivitis • Plaque that is not removed hardens over time and collects above your gum line. Hardened plaque makes it more difficult to brush and clean between your teeth. Your gums become red, swollen, and bleed easily • Most common dental concern during pregnancy, affecting 50% of all pregnant women

  10. Oral Health ProblemsGum Disease Gingivitis • Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease • It causes red, swollen gums (gums bleed easily) • Most gingivitis can be treated with daily brushing and flossing and regular cleanings at the dentist's office • This form of gum disease does not lead to loss of bone or tissue around the teeth Your risk of gum disease is higher if you: • Smoke • Have a disease such as diabetes or HIV/AIDS • Use methamphetamine

  11. Gingivitis

  12. Periodontal DiseaseGum Disease • If gingivitis is left untreated, it can progress into periodontal disease • Severe gum infection, which destroys the bones and fibers that help to keep your teeth in place Can cause some very unpleasant side effects including: • bleeding from the gums, tooth loss, and infection • Particular concern during pregnancy • increased risk for both preterm labor and having a low birth weight baby

  13. Periodontal Disease

  14. Periodontal Disease

  15. Oral Health ProblemsGum Disease Advanced Periodontitis • The gums recede further, destroying more bone and the ligament around the tooth • Teeth may become loose and need to be removed

  16. Pregnancy Tumors • Can form if you are suffering from pregnancy gingivitis or periodontal disease • These tumors are growths that form on your gums • They can make it hard to speak, eat and swallow, and may cause pain and discomfort

  17. Oral Health ProblemsHalitosis Bad breath • Bad breath is also called halitosis Bad-smelling breath can be caused by several things, including: • Poor oral hygiene • Some foods • Dentures • Gum disease • Dry mouth • Tobacco use • Respiratory, digestive, or other health problems • Some medicines

  18. Oral Health ProblemsBurning Mouth • People with this condition describe a burning feeling in the mouth or tongue • It is most common in postmenopausal women The cause is unknown, but might be linked to: • Hormones • Dry mouth • Taste problems • Nutritional deficiencies • Use of ACE inhibitors (blood pressure medicines) • Anxiety and depression • Dentures that do not fit • Infections (especially fungal infections)

  19. Oral Health ProblemsCold Sores • These small, painful sores are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 • Once you are exposed to the virus, it can hide in your body for years • Cold sores can spread from person to person • Often form on the lips and sometimes under the nose or chin • The sores heal in about 7 to 10 days without scarring. You can buy over-the-counter drugs to put on cold sores to help relieve pain Things that trigger the virus and lead to cold sores include: • Getting too much sun • Having a cold or infection • Feeling stressed

  20. Oral Health ProblemsDry Mouth • This problem happens when you don't have enough saliva, or spit, in your mouth • Dry mouth may make it hard to eat, swallow, taste, and speak • If left untreated, it can lead to cavities • This is because saliva helps break down bits of food and helps stop acid from forming plaque on your teeth Some reasons why people get dry mouth include: • Side effect of medicines or medical treatment, such as cancer treatments • Health problems, such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and Sjogren's syndrome • A blocked salivary gland Treatment • depends on the cause it can range from medicines to diet changes • To lessen the dryness, use artificial saliva, suck on sugarless candy, do not smoke, do not drink alcohol, and use a humidifier

  21. Oral Health ProblemsCanker Sores •  These sores are small ulcers inside the mouth. (white or gray base and a red border) • Women are more likely than men to have canker sores that recur • Canker sores most often heal on their own in one to three weeks. The cause of canker sores is unknown. Risk factors include: • Fatigue • Stress • Having your period • A cut on the inside of your cheek or on your tongue • Allergies • Celiac disease • Crohn's disease To help with pain: • Avoid hot, spicy foods • Use mild mouthwashes or salt water • Try over-the-counter pain medicines

  22. Oral Health ProblemsThrush • These fungal infections appear as red, yellow, or white lesions, flat or slightly raised, in the mouth or throat. It can look like cottage cheese Your risk of getting thrush increases if: • You have a weak immune system • You don't make enough saliva • You take antibiotics Treatment: • antifungal mouthwash or lozenges • If the infection spreads or your immune system is weak, you may need antifungal medicine Thrush is common among:  • Denture wearers • People who are very young or elderly • People with dry mouth • People with HIV or other chronic disease (like diabetes)

  23. Oral Health ProblemsOral Cancer • This cancer can affect any part of the mouth and part of the throat • If you smoke or chew tobacco, you are at higher risk • Excessive alcohol use along with smoking raises your risk even more (nonsmokers can also develop oral cancer) • To help protect yourself from lip cancer, use a lip balm with sunscreen (exposure to the sun can cause lip cancer) • Oral cancer most often occurs after age 40 • It isn't always painful, so it may go undetected until the late stages Signs & Symptoms Include: • Oral cancer often starts as a tiny white or red spot or sore anywhere in the mouth • A sore that bleeds easily or does not heal • A color change in the tissues of the mouth • A lump, rough spot, or other change • Pain, tenderness, or numbness anywhere in the mouth or on the lips • Problems chewing, swallowing, speaking, or moving the jaw or tongue • A change in the way the teeth fit together

  24. Oral HealthAs we get older, our chance for cavities increases TRUE Changes in your mouth as you age make cavities more likely • Although decay may occur in any area of the tooth, as you age decay is more likely to develop around old fillings or in the softer root of the tooth that is exposed as gums recede •  As you age, you become more vulnerable to developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis and heart disease • Researchers believe that symptoms of these diseases can manifest themselves in the mouth, making dentists key in diagnosing the diseases

  25. Cancer • If you are being treated for cancer, you may develop sores or other problems with your mouth • Pay attention to your mouth each day, and remember to brush and floss gently • Call your doctor or nurse if you notice a mouth problem, or if an old problem gets worse

  26. Diabetes • People with diabetes are at special risk for gum disease. Gum disease can lead to painful chewing and even tooth loss • Dry mouth, often a symptom of undetected diabetes, can cause soreness, ulcers, infections, and tooth decay. • People with diabetes can also get thrush • Smoking makes these problems worse

  27. Heart disease • Before some dental treatments, patients who have certain heart conditions or joint replacements may take antibiotics • May be at risk of getting an infection when bacteria that lives in the mouth goes into the bloodstream during treatment • Antibiotics lower this risk

  28. HIV • Oral problems are common in people with HIV because of a weak immune system • These problems can make it hard to eat • Lack of nutrition – Mouth pain or tenderness makes it hard to chew and swallow

  29. Oral Health Gum Disease can’t be prevented FALSE • Gum disease can be reversed in nearly all cases • Visit your dentist for regular check-ups and cleanings • Tell dentist if you are pregnant • Avoid dental x-rays during pregnancy (unless absolutely necessary) • Brush your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and floss once a day • Use an antimicrobial mouth rinse • Avoid tobacco • Limit alcohol • Avoid or limit sugary snacks • Eat healthy, balanced diet (fruits and vegetables) • baby’s first teeth begin to develop about 3 month

  30. Choosing the right toothpaste • So many different kinds of toothpaste are available today. • whitening, reducing gingivitis and plaque, and sensitive teeth • Toothpaste should contain fluoride and look for the seal of acceptance from American Dental Association's (ADA) • Beyond that, choosing toothpastes is a personal choice • Mouthwashes claim to freshen your breath. But they really only mask breath odor for a few hours • You can also use a tongue scraper to freshen breath • A tongue scraper removes food particles trapped in the pits along the tongue's surface • Brushing your tongue with your toothbrush can also remove these bits of food

  31. Oral HealthIf one brushes three times a day instead of twice, flossing is not necessary. FALSE • Flossing does about 40% of the work required to remove sticky bacteria, or plaque, from your teeth • Floss gets to places your toothbrush can't, removing small bits of food trapped in between your teeth and gums

  32. ToothbrushChange your toothbrush every 6 months FALSE • Change your toothbrush every three months, or earlier if the toothbrush looks worn or the bristles spread out • A new toothbrush removes more plaque

  33. Infant Oral Health • Early childhood cavities (ECC) often called baby bottle tooth decay • occurs when sweetened liquids or those with natural sugars (like milk, formula, and fruit juice) cling to an infant's teeth for long periods of time • Water should be the only liquid put in a bedtime bottle • Propping a baby’s bottle • liquid gathers in a baby's mouth when the bottle is propped (choking is also a hazard) • Baby teeth are important because they guide the permanent teeth - You should start caring for your baby’s gums even before their first teeth come in

  34. Infant Oral Health The best way to brush babies teeth after they start coming in: • As your child’s teeth start to appear (generally 6 months) look for a baby toothbrush with a small head and grip suitable for your hand. • Use a tiny amount of toothpaste (size of a grain) • Twice daily, gently brushing on the inside and outside of each of your baby’s teeth, as well as the tongue • Floss once all the baby teeth have come in • Make sure your child is getting enough fluoride • If your local water supply does not contain fluoride, ask your dentist or doctor how your child should get it • Never giving your child a pacifier dipped in anything sweet • Decreasing your child's sugar intake, especially between meals

  35. Infant Oral HealthA child should have their first dental visit by their first birthday TRUE • Baby should see a dentist by first birthday or within 6 months after their first tooth comes in • Children with special needs should be seen more often • At least once per year

  36. Infant Oral HealthBaby teeth are not very important False • Baby teeth are necessary for chewing, speaking, and smiling • They also serve as placeholders for the adult teeth

  37. Childhood Oral HealthParents can check their child’s teeth for signs of childhood dental decay TRUE • You can check your child's mouth for Early Childhood Tooth Decay (ECTD) by lifting the lip and checking their teeth and gum line (check behind their front teeth as well – can use dental mirror) Some signs of tooth decay are: • brown or yellow spots on the teeth or "chalky" areas • grooves or changes to the front teeth

  38. Teaching Children to brush their teeth • Make it fun • Incorporate a game, fun song • great way to show children plaque on their teeth is by using disclosing • Children need help brushing their teeth until they are 8 years old • Teach children to always spit out toothpaste and store toothpaste out of their reach • Swallowing toothpaste with fluoride can lead to permanent spots on forming teeth

  39. References • http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/topics/adult.htm • http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/complications_teeth/ • http://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/dental/weblinks_oral_health.htm • http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/oral-health.cfm#a • www.Colgate.com • www.aquafresh.com

  40. Q&A • What do you get impacted gums from? • What is the difference in the whitening toothpaste? • What do you know about whitening products (crest strips, mouth pieces)

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