Oral Health Evelyn Berger-Jenkins, MD
Learning Objectives • Recall normal pattern of primary and secondary tooth development • Identify common non-tooth related pathology in the oral cavity • Include screening for caries in well child care, and establish prevention strategies with parents • Be aware of some of the evidence base around controversial oral health issues
Case #1 • ‘A’ is a 3-week old, ex-FT boy with no significant peri-natal complications. He comes today for his first well-child visit. His mother had no complaints, but on exam you notice the following:
Natal teeth • Usually “normal variant”, but can be associated with certain syndromes: • Ellis van Creveld • Hallermann-Streiff • Jadassohn-Lewandowski • What to do? • X-ray • Observe • Remove if supernumery, feeding problems or loose
Case #2 • ‘B’ is A’s twin sister. She has no natal teeth, but mom is concerned about this other bump in her mouth
Other “bumps” in the mouth… Mucocele Ranula
Case #3 • ‘C’ is a 4 month-old girl who presents because her mother noticed “some white stuff on her tongue”. What is your differential diagnosis?
Case #4 • ‘D’ is a 10 month-old healthy girl presenting for well-child care. Her father complains that she’s been taking less formula and wonders if it’s because she’s teething. She had eruption of her lower central incisors at 6 months. He asks you when she will get her two front teeth?
Case #5 • ‘E’ is an 18-month old boy with no significant past medical history. He presents with fever to 101.2 x 2 days. He had mild nasal congestion yesterday. Mom asks if his fever could be due to teething?
Does teething cause fever? Tighe M et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007;92:266
Does teething cause fever? • Review of the evidence • Mostly poor quality studies, i.e. retrospective or relied on parent report • Two prospective studies found an association between increased temperature and the day of tooth eruption +/- 1 day. • Bottom line • Infants with fever > 38.5, or with temperature 38-38.5 on days other than the day of tooth eruption +/- 1 day should be evaluated for other sources of fever. • Those presenting with low-grade fever (< 38.5) during this window may be monitored conservatively if well appearing. Tighe M et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007;92:266
Case #6 • ‘F’ is a 2 year-old girl with mild speech delay. Her mother is concerned that her speech delay is due to her “tongue tie”. What do you tell her?
Ankyloglossia • Prominent lingual frenulum occurs in ~3-5% of children • Complications may include • Feeding (breastfeeding) difficulties • Articulation problems
Ankyloglossia & speech delay? • Review of the evidence • No evidence for ankyloglossia and speech/language delay • Moderate evidence for moderate-severe ankyloglossia and articulation problems • Lingual frenulum will recede by 6 years of age in majority of children therefore may observe conservatively
Case #7 • ‘G’ is a healthy 3 year-old boy presenting for WCC. Mom has had trouble getting him to sleep throughout the night b/c he still wakes for his bottle. On exam you are presented with the following:
Dental caries - Epidemiology • The MOST common chronic disease in children • 18% in 2-4 year olds 67% in 12-17 year olds • Higher in certain ethnic groups • Common in < 3 year-olds due to • Primary teeth are thinner than permanent teeth • Teeth that erupt 1st are less protected by saliva
Extrinsic factors Dyes in foods (coffee), cigarettes… Medications (tetracyclines, anticholinergics) Metals (iron, lead) Trauma Intrinsic factors Hyperbilirubinemia Poryphyria Differential diagnosis of discolored teeth Tetracycline discoloration
Dental caries - Management • Remove plaque and decayed teeth • PREVENTION, PREVENTION, PREVENTION! • Oral hygiene • Limit substrate (carbohydrates) • Fluoride
Preventive – Dental Home • Beginning at 6-mo pediatricians should: • Assess mother’s oral health. • Assess oral health risks* • Examine mouth/teeth and recognize signs/symptoms of caries. • Assess child’s exposure to fluoride. • *Send high-risk patients to dentist sooner
Case #7 continued… • Mom asks if this could have been prevented if she had given him a vitamin. Her friend is giving her child supplemental fluoride, but you never prescribed this for her. Why?
Fluoride • Anti-cariogenic • Decreases demineralization by • combining into & strengthening enamel • decreasing production of acid from bacteria • Present in 2/3 of all US public water supplies (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/MWF/Index.asp) and most toothpastes • Supplement if low fluoride levels in water supply, or child doesn’t drink water
Case #8 • You’re in the ED and are presented with ‘H’, a 5 year-old boy who comes in with his front tooth in a cup of salt water. It fell out when he was hit in the face during a baseball game.
Dental trauma • Were these likely his primary or secondary teeth? • What should you do with the patient? The tooth?
Dental trauma - management • Don’t forget to assess for head trauma • Call OMF surgery early • Utility of preserving the avulsed tooth? • Avulsed primary teeth should NOT be reimplanted • Avulsed permanent teeth should be re-implanted STAT (before 15 minutes) or stored in cold milk until they can be restored
Case #9 • ‘I’ is a 12 year-old girl with no significant past medical history. She sucks her thumb, and her mother is asking your opinion about obtaining braces for the following problem:
Malocclusion • Causes: • Hereditary • Behaviors (bottles, pacifiers and thumb sucking esp. beyond 5 yrs.) • Treatment: • Mostly cosmetic • Orthodontist referral best if early
Case #10 • ‘J’ is a 14 year-old girl who is preparing for her quinceañera. She asks you whether there is any “downside” to using teeth whiteners, and whether you could recommend a whitening method. What do you tell her?
Tooth whiteners? • Lee SS et al. • Recent review of tooth whitening in children • Conclusions: • 30-50% of patients experience gingival irritation (increased in children) • Excessive peroxide exposure can cause pulpal/root damage esp. in < 18 year olds • Whitening during mixed dentition will result in uneven results Lee SS et al. Pediatric Dentistry. 2005 Sep-Oct;27(5):362-8
References • MAIN: • Website AAP Health Topics, Oral Health: www.aap.org/healthtopics/oralhealth.cfm • Preventive Oral Health Intervention for Pediatricians. Pediatrics 2008;122:1387-1394 • OTHER: • Natal Teeth A Review: J Natl Med Assoc. 2006 Feb. 98(2):226-8 • Delayed Tooth Eruption: Am J OrthodDentofacialOrthop. 2004 Oct. 126(4):432-45 • Fever & Teething: Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007. 92:266 • Ankyloglossia: J Paediatr Child Health 2005 May-Jun. 41(5-6):246-50 • Fluoride content in various water sources: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/MWF/Index.asp