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ORAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT. PERIODONTAL DISEASES. OUTLINES. Introduction Causes Risk factors Signs and symptoms Disease progression Complications Managements Prognosis. Introduction. Periodontal disease is an infectious disease process that involves the periodontal tissues.

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  2. OUTLINES • Introduction • Causes • Risk factors • Signs and symptoms • Disease progression • Complications • Managements • Prognosis

  3. Introduction • Periodontal disease is an infectious disease process that involves the periodontal tissues. • Periodontal diseases involve the structures of the periodontium. • Periodontal disease can cause a breakdown of the periodontium resulting in loss of tissue attachment and destruction of the alveolar bone.

  4. Periodontium (forms a specialized fibrous joint called Gomphosis) • Cementum • Periodontal Ligament • Alveolar bone • Gingiva facing the tooth

  5. PERIODONTIUM Pulp cavity Enamel Cementum PDL Alveolar bone Sharpey's fibers Attachment organ Dentin Gingiva Cementum Periodontal ligament Root canal Alveolar bone Apical foramen Alveolar vessels & nerves

  6. Possible Etiologic Agents of Periodontal Disease • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans • Porphyromonas gingivalis • Tannerella forsythia (Bacteroides forsythus) • Prevotella intermedia • Spirochetes • Fusobacterium nucleatum • Eikenella corrodens • Campylobacter rectus (Wolinella recta) • Peptostreptococcus micros • Streptococcus intermedius

  7. Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease • Smoking • Diabetes • Poor Oral Hygiene • Osteoporosis • HIV/AIDS • Medications • Stress

  8. Periodontal disease

  9. Disease progressionsDid you know?Gum disease is a common dental problem that may result in tooth loss. Gingivitis and Periodontitis are the most common types of adult gum disease.

  10. WHAT IS GINGIVITIS ?  • Gingivitis is inflammation of the gum tissue. • The gums are irritated and swollen due to a plaque or calculus (tartar) buildup along the gum line. • The gums may be sore, bleed easily and appear puffy, soft and swollen. dr shabeel pn

  11. WHAT IS GINGIVITIS ?  • No bone structure is lost around the teeth at this stage of gum disease. • Blood on the toothbrush or dental floss is one of the earliest and most common signs of gingivitis. • Your gums should never bleed while brushing or flossing. • The good news about gingivitis is that it is preventable and reversible through good brushing and flossing techniques (or other interdental tooth cleansing). • On the other hand, if oral hygiene habits are poor, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis.

  12. Gingivitis: Notice the gums are red and swollen

  13. WHAT IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE? • Periodontitis is destruction of bone and the structures supporting the teeth. Unfortunately periodontitis is irreversible, but you can stop its progression through good oral hygiene and visiting your dental professional.

  14. Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth Gums that are red, swollen or tender Gums that have pulled away from teeth Infection including purulence (pus) between the teeth and gums when the gums are pressed Permanent teeth that are loose or separating Any changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite Any changes in the fit of your partial denture Bad breath Itchy sensation Eight Warning Signs of Periodontal Disease:

  15. EARLY AND MODERATE PERIODONTITIS: • Periodontitis occurs when the inflammation of the gums progresses into the deeper underlying structures and bone. • In the most common form of periodontitis, plaque (and sometimes calculus) is found below the gum line. • The gums may feel irritated, appear bright red, and bleed easily.

  16. EARLY AND MODERATE PERIODONTITIS: • The ligaments holding the tooth in its socket break down and the gums pull away from the teeth, resulting in a periodontal pocket or space between the tooth and gum. • The periodontal pocket deepens and fills with more bacteria. Supportive ligaments and bone start to show damage.


  18. ADVANCED PERIODONTITIS: • When periodontitis progresses to the advanced stage, the gums severely recede (pull away from the tooth ); pockets deepen and may be filled with pus.

  19. Advanced Periodontitis • There may be swelling around the root and you may experience sensitivity to hot or cold or feel pain when brushing your teeth. This is due to the severely receding gums exposing the root surface.

  20. Advanced Periodontitis • As bone loss increases, your teeth may lose so much support that they need to be removed to preserve the overall health of your mouth.

  21. Advanced Periodontal Disease dr shabeel pn

  22. Complications • Teeth loss • periodontalabscess formation

  23. Prevention • Regular homecare • Brush(proper tooth brushing techniques) • Floss • Rinse • Aids to oral hygiene • Regular dental visits • Dietary consideration

  24. Detection • Signs and Symptoms • Bleeding, inflamed gums • Halitosis • Discoloration/Stain • Long tooth • Mobility • Radiographic findings • Periodontal probing depths

  25. MANAGEMENT • The treatment consists of – • Non-surgical procedures • Scaling • Root planing • Curettage • -Tooth extraction • Surgical procedure • Pocket reduction surgery • Resective • Regenerative • Correction of morphological / anatomic defects

  26. Overall Prognosis • Dependent on: • Client compliance • Systemic involvement • Severity of condition • # of remaining teeth

  27. Prognosis of Individual Teeth • Dependent on: • Attachment levels, bone height • Status of adjacent teeth • Furcation involvement • Root resorption

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