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Define Cellular Respiration. The process in which biomolecules, like sugar, are converted into an energy form that living things can use (ATP). How many types of Cellular Respiration are there?. Two Types : Aerobic or Anaerobic Distinguish between these. With or without oxygen

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define cellular respiration
Define Cellular Respiration.
  • The process in which biomolecules, like sugar, are converted into an energy form that living things can use (ATP).
how many types of cellular respiration are there
How many types of Cellular Respiration are there?
  • Two Types: Aerobic or Anaerobic
  • Distinguish between these.
  • With or without oxygen
  • How much ATP does each yield?
  • Aerobic yields 36 or 38 ATP
  • Anaerobic yields only 2, but gives NAD back to glycolysis to keep the process going.
chemical equations
Chemical Equations

Photosynthesis: light energy converted to chemical energy

  • CO2 + H2O = O2 + glucose

Cellular Respiration: biomolecules converted to ATP

  • O2 + glucose = CO2 + ATP
where is the energy stored in biomolecules like sugars carbs lipids etc
Where is the energy stored in biomolecules like sugars, carbs, lipids, etc.?
  • In the bonds between the atoms
where in the bonds is energy stored in atp
Where in the bonds is energy stored in ATP?
  • In the bond between the second and third phosphate
how do living things access and convert the energy stored in biomolecules
How do living things access and convert the energy stored in biomolecules?
  • Break existing bonds and form new ones
slide8
What is the name for the series of reactions that converts the stored energy in biomolecules into molecules of ATP?
  • Cellular Respiration
what is the first stage of cellular respiration called
What is the first stage of cellular respiration called?
  • Glycolysis
  • Where does this step occur?
  • In the Cytoplasm
  • Is this aerobic or anaerobic?
  • Anaerobic
  • What are the products of this step?
  • ATP, NADH, and 2 3-C Pyruvate molecules
  • What is the net production of ATP in this step?
  • 2 ATP’s
if oxygen is available where do the pyruvates go
If oxygen is available where do the pyruvates go?
  • To the Mitochondria
  • What type of Cellular Respiration is this?
  • Aerobic
what happens in the prep step
What happens in the Prep Step?
  • The pyruvates are transported into the mitochondria.
  • They lose a carbon (CO2 given off)
  • 2 carbon acetates are formed—they use NAD and Co enzyme A to become…
  • acetyl Co A
diagram and describe the events of the prep step pyruvate conversion
Diagram and describe the events of the prep step (pyruvate conversion)
  • 2 3-C pyruvate molecules are converted to…
  • 2 2-C acetate molecules with the production of…
  • 2 molecules of NADH and 2 molecules of CO2
slide13
Diagram the events of the Kreb’s Cycle indicating the number of NADH, FADH2, ATP, and CO2 molecules produced
  • The Krebs Cycle produces electron carriers a CO2 is released leaving…
  • 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 4 CO2
what is the significance of the four co 2 molecules produced in the kreb s cycle
What is the significance of the four CO2 molecules produced in the Kreb’s Cycle?
  • The four carbons in the four CO2 molecules plus the two carbons in the two CO2 molecules from the prep step are evidence that the initial six carbon sugar molecule is completely broken down
describe what the electron transport chain is and where it is located in the mitochondria
Describe what the electron transport chain is and where it is located in the mitochondria.
  • The ECT is a series of protein molecules embedded on the inner membrane of the mitochondria that each have a higher attraction for electrons than the previous one.
slide17

Every time an electron is accepted and released by a protein in the electron transport chain –a redox reaction releases a small amount of energy used to do what?

  • Actively transport a H+ ion from the matrix into the outer compartment
what happens when a molecule is reduced
What happens when a molecule is reduced?
  • It accepts electrons.
  • What happens when a molecule is oxidized?
  • It loses electrons.
  • What is this reaction called?
  • A Redox Reaction.
mnemonic strategy
Mnemonic Strategy
  • LEO the lion says GER
  • Lose Electrons=Oxidize
  • Gain Electrons=Reduce
where do h ions become highly concentrated
Where do H+ ions become highly concentrated?
  • In the Outer compartment
  • Are these ions freely permeable to the membrane?
  • No, so…how can they diffuse through the membrane into the outer compartment?
  • Through ATP Synthetase transport proteins.
is the diffusion of h ions energy releasing or energy requiring
Is the diffusion of H+ ions energy releasing or energy requiring?
  • Releasing
  • Is the formation of ATP from ADP energy releasing or energy requiring?
  • Requiring
  • Link these two statements in explaining the formation of ATP.
  • The energy released in the diffusion of H+ is required to form ATP.
how many atp molecules can be created from the electrons delivered by nadh
How many ATP molecules can be created from the electrons delivered by NADH?
  • 3/NADH
  • How many ATP molecules can be created from the electrons delivered by FADH2?
  • 2/FADH2
what serves as the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
What serves as the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
  • Oxygen
  • What happens to pyruvates if oxygen is not available?
  • Pyruvates stay in the cytoplasm and participate in Lactic Acid Fermentation pathways.
diagram the lactic acid anaerobic respiration pathway that occurs in animals
Diagram the lactic acid anaerobic respiration pathway that occurs in animals
  • 2 3-C Pyruvates-->2 3-C Lactic Acid
  • 2 NAD+ molecules are produced in this step
what products from lactic acid fermentation are re cycled in the respiration pathways
What products from lactic acid fermentation are re-cycled in the respiration pathways?
  • NAD+ to re-start glycolysis
why do you feel the burn when you are exercising strenuously
Why do you “feel the burn” when you are exercising strenuously?
  • Lactic acid fermentation
  • There is a build up of lactic acid in the muscles due to anaerobic lactic acid fermentation.
give two reasons why muscles can t contract well when fatigued during strenuous exercise
Give two reasons why muscles can’t contract well when fatigued during strenuous exercise.
  • 1. Only get 2 ATP per glucose due to anaerobic respiration.
  • 2. Lactic acid molecules build up in muscles and interfere with muscle contractions.
why is it valuable that animals can respire anaerobically
Why is it valuable that animals can respire anaerobically?
  • It allows animals to exert energy at a high intensity for a short period of time– times of stress for fighting or fleeing.
  • If we were not able to do anaerobic respiration, we would pass out when we had a decrease of oxygen
compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Compare: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
  • Location: Where does each take place?
  • Photosynthesis happens on the thylakoid membrane.
  • Cellular respiration happens on the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
  • Both build up a concentration of hydrogen to power the transformation of ADP into ATP.
compare photosynthesis vs cellular respiration
Compare -- Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration
  • Source of electrons:
  • Photosynthesis gets electrons from—breakdown of water molecules (photolysis).
  • Cellular respiration gets electrons from—FADH2 and NADH from Krebs cycle.
  • Final electron acceptors= NADP+ in photosynthesis and Oxygen in aerobic respiration.
cycles
Cycles
  • Photosynthesis has Calvin cycle….

adds carbon to make sugar.

  • Cellular Respiration has the….
  • Krebs cycle--creates source of electrons and ATP for larger production of ATP
compare organisms that do photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Compare--- Organisms that do photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
  • Photosynthesis happens …only in plants.
  • Cellular respiration in both plants and animals.
review
Review
  • Cellular respiration –Two basic stages:
  • Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle
  • Glycolysis yields 2 ATP
  • Aerobic respiration (Krebs and ECT) yields:
  • 36 0r 38 ATP
  • If no oxygen is available..
  • Fermentation begins and NAD+ is recycled back into..
  • Glycolysis which continues until…
  • Oxygen is available.
review1
Review
  • Two kinds of fermentation:
  • Alcoholic and Lactic Acid
  • Alcoholic fermentation is done by:
  • Yeast, bacteria, fungus and creates foods like
  • Beer, wine, cheese, bread
  • Lactic acid fermentation happens in
  • animals and some fungi. It causes..
  • Sore muscles after anaerobic exercise.
the end
The End
  • Good Luck!