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Cellular Respiration. Ch 7. What is it?. Cellular respiration – the process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds (sugars and food) ALL CELLS DO THIS! Plants, animals, heterotrophs and autotrophs. Cellular respiration. Occurs in two stages Glycolysis

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what is it
What is it?
  • Cellular respiration – the process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds (sugars and food)
  • ALL CELLS DO THIS! Plants, animals, heterotrophs and autotrophs
cellular respiration1
Cellular respiration
  • Occurs in two stages
    • Glycolysis
    • Aerobic Respiration

Equation is

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

Notice this is the equation for photosynthesis backwards!

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Organic compounds are converted into pyruvic acid producing some ATP and NADH (this is an electron carrying molecule)
  • Glycolysis is anaerobic – it does not require oxygen to work
  • Occurs in the cytosol of the cell
when oxygen is not present glycolysis
When oxygen is not present (glycolysis)
  • Fermentation – pyruvic acid is converted into many different compounds via various biochemical pathways the two most common are:
    • Lactic acid
    • Ethyl alcohol
lactic acid
Lactic acid
  • Lactic acid is used in fermenting dairy products with microorganisms. This can change milk into cheese, yogurt, sour cream and all other dairy products.
  • Lactic acid is also produced in your muscles under strenuous exercise. The muscle uses up oxygen faster than it is delivered so the muscle switches from cellular respiration to lactic acid fermentation. The build up of lactic acid causes the muscle to cramp and fatigue.
ethyl alcohol
Ethyl alcohol
  • Alcohol fermentation – pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcohol
  • Yeast breaks down sugar for energy producing alcohol and carbon dioxide, bread also uses yeasts, the sugars in the grains are broken down, the carbon dioxide is trapped in the bread and the alcohol evaporated during baking.
aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • Occurs when oxygen is present
  • Pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make large amounts of ATP
  • 2 stages
    • Krebs cycle (in mitochondrial matrix)
    • Electron transport chain (in mitochondria membrane folds)
slide9

Matrix = Krebs cycle

  • Inner Membrane = etc
    • More folds = more locations for reactions to take place!
krebs cycle
Krebs cycle
  • Multi-step process
  • Uses pyruvic acid
  • Produces carbon dioxide (exhaled as waste), hydrogen atoms and ATP
slide11
etc
  • Similar to photosynthesis etc
  • Occurs in inner fold membrane of mitochondria
  • As electron moves many ATP are produced by the ATP synthase
  • Oxygen accepts the moving electrons in the last step to produce water (along with the extra hydrogen produced in the Krebs cycle)
overview
overview

Some energy is also given off as heat, the less heat given off means the system is more efficient!

1 in what part of the mitochondria does the krebs cycle occur
1. In what part of the mitochondria does the krebs cycle occur
  • Cytosol
  • Inner membrane
  • Cristae
  • Matrix
2 where is the etc located
2. Where is the etc located
  • Cytosol
  • Inner membrane
  • Cristae
  • Matrix
3 what are the two stages to cellular respiration
3. What are the two stages to cellular respiration
  • glycolysis and fermentation.
  • Stage 1 and Stage 2 of photosynthesis.
  • glycolysis, then aerobic respiration.
  • oxidative respiration, then reductive respiration.
4 the process of cellular respiration
4. The process of cellular respiration
  • is performed only by organisms that are incapable of photosynthesis.
  • breaks down food molecules to release stored energy.
  • occurs before plants are able to carry out photosynthesis.
  • occurs only in animals.
5 what is the process when atp is produced without oxygen
5. What is the process when ATP is produced without oxygen
  • Respiration
  • Oxidation
  • Fermentation
  • Aerobic respiration
6 when organic compounds are broken down
6. When organic compounds are broken down
  • Energy is stored as ADP
  • Energy is stored as ATP
  • Energy is released as heat
  • Both B and C
  • All A, B and C