Art & Architecture of Pompeii and Herculanium House of Pansa House of the Vettii Villa of the mysteries House of the Faun “Harbour Scene from Stabiae “the Lost Ram “Perseus and Andromeda “Death of Penthius “The Trojan horse Portrait of Terentius neo & wife Dionysiac frieze villa of the Mysteries Wall from Villa Publius Fannius Sinistor Portrait of a Woman Alexander Mosaic Nilotic scene “Sorceress & client
79AD DESTRUCTION buried under 10m of ash and remained so for 1700 yrs. A time capsule into the life of 1st century Romans in a holiday area of Campania. Pompeians didn’t become Roman citizens until 89BC and by 79AD Roman culture overlay the earlier culture of the Osci and Samnite tribes. Greeks had occupied the southern part of Italy since 5th century BC so there was an influence of Hellenism in Pompeii and Herculanium.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS: Temples, Basilicas (palaces). Fine decoration and architecture PRIVATE BUILDINGS: As today, homes reflected socio-economic status: Poor lived in high rise apartments (Insulae) in 4th century Rome there were 46000 of them housing more than ¾ of a million people. In Pompei (pop 20,000) the poor lived in flats above shops and richer houses. Wealthy lived in Domus (stand alone houses built around an open atrium – inward looking) or luxurious villae (grand with seaviews, terrace, porticoes, large windows) on the outskirts of town or surrounding countryside overlooking the bay of Naples.
The Elite Domus • Typical elite houses evolved from Etruscan atrium-style houses, with the addition of Greek style peristyle (colonnaded) gardens. • Usually were one floor, with a main reception room (atrium) surrounded by bedrooms (cubicula), dining room (triclinium), record room/office (tablinum).
Upper rooms, often sublet to tenants. Impluvium - pool directly below roof opening Triclinium – summer dining room. Exedra–outdoor sitting or eating Roof opening – letting in light (and rain) Peristylium – courtyard with trees, fountains, statues, surrounded by columns (colonnade) Oecus–spare room. Horta – garden The Roman domus Culina – Kitchens Tablinum – Study. Atrium – visitors room Triclinium – dining room. Cubiculum – bedrooms Fauces – or vestibulum Taberna – rented out shop or workplace. DOMUS Outer Wall – Domus was inward facing.
Sample Plan of a Roman House (Domus) L V vestibulum T taberna C cubiculum/cubicula L latrina A atrium Al alae Ta tablinum Cu culina Tri triclinium P peristylium E exedra
The Faucis (entrance way) Pompeii, House Entrance
The Atrium • Reception room, often with an opening in the ceiling with an impluvium below. • Contained the family gods (Lares and Penates), imagines (masks of the ancestors), symbolic marriage bed. • Women of the house (or their slaves) may have wool-worked there.
The Lararium Lararium
Herculaneum Lararium contained lars (symbols or masks of ancestors), & penates (gods of the household
The Tablinum The Master’s Study containing the family records wax tablets (Tabulae) the Household Safe (Arca) Scrolls