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  1. Pompeii • Vesuvius erupts on August 24, 79 AD • Pliny the Younger's letter to Tacitus • One day frozen in time • Valuable resource for classicists

  2. Latin Graffiti • Sometimes painted, sometimes etched into plaster walls • This one to the right is a caricature of the house dominus

  3. Latin Graffiti Tombs on either side of road as you approach city Prime place for graffiti heavy traffic All letters written in capitals “u” and “v” are both denoted by capital “V” e.g. NVCERIA for Nuceria “A” most often written as “Λ” Principle of Economy: abbreviations preferred; least amount of space for maximum amount of information “Interpuncts” for word separation Mutual dependence of text and image

  4. The Nuceria Gate Graffiti • Gate to Nuceria • Walls of tombs contain graffiti • House of Ceii

  5. M. ΛTTILIVS XII כ X Either “V” or “M” The Nuceria Gate Graffiti Basic Rubric: Gladiator Name Roman Numeral Backward “C” Second Numeral Final Letter

  6. Gladiator Name: Attilius, Hilarus, Raecius, etc. First Roman Numeral: Probably denotes the number of victories this gladiator has won. “victoriae/victoriarum” The Reversed “C”: symbol for “coronae” Second Roman Numeral: Number of coronae won This numeral never greater than first Final Letter M or V: “M” stands for missus est: reprieved (lost, but lived)‏ “V” stands for vicit: he won Celadus at Pompeii as suspirium puellarum The Nuceria Gate Graffiti

  7. CIL iv 10236 M ΛTT / M ΛTTILIVS I כ I V. / L RΛECIVS FELIX XII כ XII M M(arcus) Att(ilius) / M(arcus) Attilius (victoriae) I (coronae) I V(icit). / L(ucius) Raecius Felix / (victoriarum) XII (coronarum) XII M(issus est). Marcus Attilius. Marcus Attilius, victorious once, awarded a wreath once, won. Lucius Raecius Felix, victorious 12 times, awarded a wreath 12 times, earned a reprieve.

  8. CIL iv 12037 HILΛRVS NER XIV כ / XII V. / CREVNVS VII כ V M. / PRICEPS / NER XII כ X[II?] / V. Hilarus Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XIV / (coronarum) / XII v(icit). / Creunus (victoriarum) VII (coronarum) V m(issus est). / Pri(n)ceps / Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XII (coronarum) X[II?] / v(icit). Hilarus, from Nero's training school, victorious 14 times, awarded a wreath 12 times, won. Creunus, victorious 7 times, awarded a wreath 5 times, earned a reprieve. Princeps, from Nero's training school, victorious 12 times, awarded a wreath 12 (?) times, won.

  9. CIL iv 12038 M ΛTTILIVS T V. / HILΛRVS NER XIV כ XIII / M. M(arcus) Attilius t(iro) v(icit). / Hilarus Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XIV (coronarum) XIII / m(issus est). Marcus Attilius as an amateur won. / Hilarus, from Nero's training school, victorious 14 times, awarded a wreath 13 times, earned a reprieve.

  10. Written into plaster walls Far more abbreviated Slightly different rubric: Name Letter “L”: lib, libr, libe Numeral “V” if winner opponent's (loser's) fate? The House of the Ceii

  11. CIL iv 8055 OCEΛNVS L XIII V. ΛRΛCINTVS L IIII. Oceanus l(iber) (victoriarum) XIII v(icit). Aracintus l(iber) (victoriarum) IIII (missus est). Oceanus, of free status, victorious 13 times, won. Aracintus, of free status, victorious 4 times, earned a reprieve.

  12. CIL iv 8056 SEVERV[S] L XIII. ΛLBΛNVS SC L XIX V. Severu[s] l(iber) (victoriarum) XIII (missus est). Albanus sc(aeva) l(iber) (victoriarum) XIX v(icit). Severus, of free status, victorious 13 times, earned a reprieve. Albanus, left-hander, of free status, victorious 19 times, won.