Gender. the body is "simultaneously a physical and symbolic artifact, both naturally and culturally produced, anchored in a particular historical moment" (Scheper-Hughes & Lock) Sex, sexuality, & gender Not the same thing. Sex, Sexuality, Gender. Sex. differences in biology
Sex, sexuality, & gender
Not the same thingSex, Sexuality, Gender
vs. the biological nature of men & women
SEX differences are biological - GENDER differences are cultural
behavioral & attitudinal differences from social & cultural rather than biological point of view
Gender refers to the ways members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated and expected to behaveGender
Boundaries require markers to indicate gender
the boundaries are dynamic, eg. now it is acceptable for men to wear earringsGender Boundaries
Felicita Vestvali1824 - 1880
New York opera star who specialized in singing contralto "trouser roles."
The difference is perception.
Acceptance or Rejection by society
a particular view of men and women as opposite kinds of creatures both biologically and culturally
essentialism of western ideas of sexual dimorphism - dichotomized into natural & then moral entities of male & female that are given to all persons, one or the other
other categories - every society including our own is at some time or other faced with people who do not fit into its sex & gender categoriesBlurring the Boundaries
margins or borders of society
may pass as normal to remain hidden in the official ideology & everyday commerce of social life
In some societies when discovered - iconic matter out of place - "monsters of the cultural imagination“
third gender as sexual deviance a common theme in US
evolution & religious doctrine
heterosexuality the highest form, the most moral way of life, its natural“Third” Gender
Cultural descendants of the court eunuchs of the Mughal Empire (1526-1858)
Perceived neither as men nor women but as a third genderThe Hijras as “Third Gender”
emphasizes gender role alternatives as adaptations to economic and political conditions rather than as "deviant" and idiosyncratic behavior
rigid dichotomozation of genders is a means of perpetuating the domination of females by males and patriarchal institutions.Third Gender Cross-Culturally
gender stereotypes - oversimplified strongly held ideas about the characteristics of men & women & third sex-third gender
gender stratification - unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, personal freedom) between men & women reflecting their position in the social hierarchyGENDER ROLES, STEREOTYPES, STRATIFICATION
Gender stratification frequently takes the form of patriarchy whereby men dominate women
Do women in our society have a second class status relative to men? If so How?Social Stratification & Gender
Engels called it the “world historical defeat of women”
even so the particulars of women’s roles, statuses, power, and value differ tremendously by cultureuniversals versus particulars
reproduction/productionpersistence of dualisms in ideologies of gender
Reproduction roles - those minimal institutions and modes of activity that are organized immediately around one or more mothers and their children
women everywhere lactate & give birth to children
likely to be associated with child rearing & responsibilities of the homeProduction, Reproduction & Social Roles
argument is that across cultures, women are more often associated with nature and the natural and are therefore denigrated
Ortner - in reality women are no further nor closer to nature than men - cultural valuations make women appear closer to nature than mena long running controversy in anthropology
All the day long,Whether rain or shine,She's a part of the assembly line.She's making history,Working for victory,Rosie the Riveter.Keeps a sharp lookout for sabatoge,Sitting up there on the fuselage.That little girl will do more than a male will do.Rosie's got a boyfriend, Charlie.Charlie, he's a Marine.Rosie is protecting Charlie,Working overtime on the riveting machine.When they gave her a production "E,"She was as proud as she could be.There's something true about,Red, white, and blue about,Rosie the Riveter.
Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb,"Rosie the Riveter," (New York: Paramount Music Corp., 1942
In the 1940s, women were encouraged to help the war effort by getting a job outside the home. But it was family and country rather than money, status, or power that they were encouraged to toil for .
“For whether she rears a family or mans a rangefinder, a woman needs the physical support of a good foundation." and "Amongst other munitions of war, Berlei are still making foundations.".
1950s - mass consumption in high gear, TV ads idealized the woman as the wife and homemaker, and the man as the bread winner.
But also the sex kitten
1958 issue of Lady's Home Journal.
The man in this advertisement is envious of his hostess' spotless drinking glasses.
Rather than giving him advice on how to get his glasses just as clear, she advises him to tell his wife to use Cascade.
The designers of this ad assume that washing dishes is a woman's chore.
The roles are strictly defined; it never crosses the woman's mind that Jean's husband might have something to do with dishwashing in his household.
She is a "multifaceted success machine”.
She is a nurturer and a seducer.
She is the twenty-four hour a day woman, and she never sleeps.
This ad is striking because it shows a man in what is typically thought of as a woman’s role.
What does the fact that he can open the pail “without passing out” say about men?
Men are domesticated. Sex objects
degree to which the contrast between public domestic (private) sphere is drawn promotes gender stratification-rewards, prestige, powerDOMESTIC - PUBLIC DICHOTOMY (M. Rosaldo)
inequality in material rewards for labor
less clearly drawn in societies where division of labor beyond age & sex is minimal (egalitarian)
rewards are highly valued social roles with prestige rather than material goodsdomestic sphere
Ilongot men as headhunters visited distant places, amassed experiences & returned to express their knowledge-receive acclaim
Ilongot women - these activities not available to themM. Rosaldo and the Ilongot of the Philippines
veiling & Islamic women
factory women in Malaysia
US & Canada - WW2 & factory women for war effort
1960s, 70s, 80s - changing gender composition of economyMobility, Public : Domestic (Private), and Gender Stratification
What is the thinnest book in the world?What men know about women!What do you call a man with an I.Q. of 50? ----- Gifted!
Why are blonde jokes so short?So men can remember them.
What is the difference between men and government bonds?Bonds mature!How many men does it take to change a roll of toilet paper?We don't know - it's never happened. How many honest, intelligent, caring men in the world does it take to do the dishes? ------- Both of them.
Why are married women heavier than single women?Single women come home, see what's in the fridge and go to bed.Married women come home, see what's in bed and go to the fridge.
A woman walked into the kitchen to find her husband stalking around with a fly swatter.she: "What are you doing?" he: "Hunting Flies" she: "Oh. Killing any?“
he: "Yep, 3 males, 2 Females,"
she: Intrigued, "How can you tell them apart?"he: "3 were on a beer can, 2 were on the phone."
If biology explains the political and economic dominance of men then surely one must simply accept that fact
So much for that theory --- in many societies women are the real labourers
biological differences cannot provide a universal basis for social definitions of `man' and `woman'
there must be some cultural or sociological regularities that must account for male dominance.
Which card is ranked higher?
allows for sexual stratification in non-class societies
female status dependent on degree to which men & women participate in activities of reproduction, warfare, subsistence
not rights & control over production but rights of distribution & control over channels of distribution critical for gender stratificationAnthropological Theories of Gender Inequality
diversity of one life or many lives
gender roles, stereotypes, stratification
changes over time
changes with position in lifecycle
status of men & women i.e. in male dominant societies
decision making roles belong to men but as women reach menopause; change with marriage status, virgins, wives, widows (and men)RETHINKING SUBORDINATION
formal authority structure of a society may declare that women are impotent & irrelevant
but attention to women's strategies & motives, sorts of choices, relationships established, ends achieved indicates women have good deal of power
strategies appear deviant & disruptive
actual components of how social life proceedsRETHINKING SUBORDINATION