sensory memory and short term working memory n.
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Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory

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  1. Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory

  2. General Plan • 1960s Many models of memory proposed • Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)-Modal Model • Sensory Memory • Short-term Memory • Long-term Memory

  3. William James • Primary Memory • Secondary Memory

  4. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968)

  5. STM Bottleneck Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Long-Term Memory

  6. Properties of the Different Memory Stores

  7. Characteristics of the Memory Stores

  8. Research on the A & S Model • Serial Position Effect • Recency Effect • Kintsch & Buschke (1969) • Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence

  9. Selective Attention (Dichotic Listening Task) • Shadowing • Irrelevant Channel • Cocktail Party Effect - Morray (1959) • Wood and Cowan (1995) • Treisman (1960)

  10. Serial Position Effect Demo

  11. Serial Position Effect Graph Primacy Effect Recency Effect

  12. Rundus (1971)

  13. Questions • How could we test the idea that the last few items are in STS? • How can we test that the primacy effect represents LTS?

  14. Eliminating the Recency Effect

  15. Other Evidence: Kintsch & Bushchke (1969)

  16. Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction • H.M. - Epileptic - Temporal Lobes / Hippocampus - STM ---> LTM disrupted • K.F. - Damage to Left Cerebral Cortex - LTM Normal - STM capacity severely limited

  17. Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction The dog bit the man and the man died. vs. The man the dog bit died.

  18. Evidence Against A & S • More recent research challenges the strict coding distinction • Recency Effect challenged • Neuroscience evidence

  19. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968)

  20. The Sensory Store

  21. Lightning

  22. Lightning Demo

  23. Lightning Questions

  24. Sensory Memory • Sensory memory or sensory register • Visual, auditory, touch, taste, smell • Relatively raw, unprocessed form

  25. Why Do We Need Sensory Memory? • Stimuli change • Maintain for selection and further processing • Integrate fragments of a stimuli into a single unitary perception

  26. Classic Studies • Sperling (1960) • Averbach & Sperling (1961)

  27. A Tachistoscope

  28. Tachistoscopic Display - Blank

  29. Fixation Point *

  30. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 1 J Z G B S X P L R M Q F

  31. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 1

  32. Tachistoscopic Display Blank 2

  33. Fixation Point *

  34. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 2 Y Q C H N D R J V B K S

  35. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 2

  36. Schematic of Typical Sperling Exp

  37. Number of Letters Recalled as a Function of Technique & Delay

  38. Sensory Memory Demo

  39. Iconic Memory • Location • Usefulness • Saccades • Nature of the code

  40. Letters & Numbers (Early vs. Late Processing Issue) 1 K 5 L H J 3 B 7 D 8 T

  41. Demo 4.1: Examples of Sensory Memory

  42. Demo 4.2 Unitary Perception from Fragments

  43. Auditory Sensory Memory • Neisser (1967) - Echoic memory and the echo • Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) • Differences from iconic memory • Crowder (1982)

  44. An Echoic Memory Study

  45. Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder

  46. Discriminating Between Two Sounds (Crowder, 1982) Graph

  47. Short-Term Memory

  48. Short-Term Memory • Nature of Forgetting • Duration • Nature of Code • Capacity

  49. Short Term Memory • Brown/Peterson & Peterson (1959) • Trigram task

  50. Trigrams K X J P L G S Y T H Z R