Lesson 8 The Civil Rights Movement
Part I The Segregated South
The Segregated South • Reconstruction – 1865-1877 • End of slavery. • New opportunities. • By the end, new opportunities were disappearing. • Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes: • Removed federal soldiers from state houses. • Louisiana • South Carolina • Left African-Americans to the mercy of former Confederates.
The Segregated South • Jim Crow Laws: • Discriminatory and segregationalist laws. • Widespread throughout the South. • 9/10 African-Americans lived in the South. • Goals of Jim Crow: • To impose strict segregation on southern society. • To prevent any appearance of social equality. • State after state enacted new laws of segregation. • U.S. Supreme Court (Plessy v. Ferguson) supported segregation.
The Segregated South • Southern states enacted new literacy tests and property qualifications for voting. • Poor whites still allowed to vote. • Lynching became common. • As did white on black violence. • Very small black middle class arose: • Entrepreneurs • Professionals. • Most African-Americans restricted to agricultural work or menial jobs in cities.
African American Leaders • Influential leaders: • Booker T. Washington • Born in slavery (1856). • Educated at Freedmen’s school. • Supported racial accommodation. • Economic improvement. • Self-reliance. • Large African-American following. • Business. • Worked to open schools for African-American children.
African American Leaders • Influential leaders: • W.E.B. Du Bois • Alternative to Booker T Washington. • Critical of Washington’s alleged acceptance of, “the inferiority of the Negro”. • Blacks must fight for: • Civil equality. • Higher education. • 1905: Niagara Movement • Promoted racial integration, civil, and political rights for African Americans. • 1910: National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples (NAACP).
African American Leaders • NAACP: • Struggle to overturn legal and economic barriers to equal opportunity for African Americans. • Segregation continued. • World War I: • Segregated units. • Barred from Marines and the Coast Guard. • Restricted to working as cooks, laundrymen, etc in the Army. • Endured humiliating and violent treatment. • Opposed by northern and southern troops.
African American Leaders • World War II: • 2.5 million African-Americans served. • Army. • Air force. • Navy. • Marines. • Coast Guard • African Americans served with distinction and made valuable contributions to the war effort.
Civil Rights After WWII • Civil Rights gained national attention. • Black voters switched from Republican to Democrat. • Why? • The Depression, Roosevelt, and the New Deal. • Affirmation of New Deal policies. • New Deal policies had positively affected African Americans. • Gain employment and various forms of relief. • Supported the party of the New Deal. • Roosevelt administration had more African-Americans than any previous administration.
Legal Challenges to Segregation • Thurgood Marshall • NAACP • Legal Defense and Education Fund. • Mounted legal challenges to segregation. • Morgan v. Virginia (1946). • Supreme Court used the interstate commerce clause to declare segregation on interstate buses unconstitutional. • The Court also struck down: • All-white primaries, racially restrictive housing, and the exclusion of African-Americans from graduate schools and law schools.
Legal Challenges to Segregation • Rulings often not enforced. • Limited real improvements. • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). • Separate but equal. • Violence common: • Against African-Americans who voted, pushed for change, or behaved inappropriately towards whites. • Emmett Till. • All white jury acquitted Till’s killers.
Separate But Equal • Daily realities for African Americans: • Poverty. • Legally sanctioned segregation (de jure). • Daily racism (de facto). • Segregation a national problem: • South. • D.C. • West. • Mid-West. • Legal victories were minor victories.
Separate But Equal • 1954: Brown v. Board of Education. • Topeka, Kansas. • Oliver Brown sued to allow his daughter to attend a nearby white school. • Kansas courts rejected his lawsuit because of nearby African American schools fulfilled “separate but equal”. • NAACP appealed to the Supreme Court. • Thurgood Marshal, lawyer. • Separate but unequal. • Unequal: financial resources, quality and number of teachers, physical and educational resources.
Separate But Equal • 1954: Brown v. Board of Education, con’t… • Marshall referred to the psychological impact of separate but equal…low self esteem. • 1952: Court unable to rule. • 1954: Supreme Court heard the case again. • Chief Justice Earl Warren: • “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” • 1955: Court gave primary responsibility to local school boards. • They should enforce the ruling with “all deliberate speed”. • Lower federal courts to monitor progress.
The Reaction • African Americans and liberals hailed the decision. • Southern whites vowed to resist integration by all possible means. • Virginia passed a law closing integrated schools. • Southern congressional representatives issues the Southern Manifesto… • Pledged to oppose the Brown ruling. • Eisenhower refused to support ruling.
Little Rock • Little Rock, Arkansas • Central High School. • Scheduled to integrate in 1957. • Parents opposed integration. • Governor (Orval Faubus) opposed integration. • National Guard ordered to surround school to prevent integration. • Elizabeth Eckford (one of nine) was blocked by troops. • Mob yelled, “Lynch Her! Lynch Her!” • Continued for three weeks.
Little Rock • September 20, 1957 • Federal court orders the Governor to integrate Central High. • Governor Faubus removed National Guard. • Anti-integrationists gathered to prevent the “Little Rock Nine” from entering the school.
Little Rock • September 23, 1957 • Little Rock Nine secretly brought into Central High. • Mobs rushed the school. • The nine students rushed to cars. • The integration of Central High School lasted three hours. • Riots: Mayor called for federal assistance.
Little Rock • President Eisenhower - Sept. 24, 1957. • Nationalized the Arkansas National Guard. • Deployed troops from the 101st Airborne to Little Rock. • To restore order – not to integrate schools. • 1957-1958: • Little Rock High Schools closed to avoid integration. • Cooper v. Aaron (1959) prevented such actions in the future.
Little Rock • Little Rock High Schools reopened. • Integration slowly spread to lower grades. • Many whites fled public schools. • Enrolled children in all white private schools. • Integration of schools slow: • 1965: 2% of schools integrated.
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