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The Dutch Republic: The Rise and Decline of a Golden Age, 1581-1715. Why did the Dutch choose a republic? Why a “golden age”? To what extent was the Dutch Republic “the most bourgeois of all of Europe?. Classicalmodelsofgovernment:. DemocracyRepublicAristocracyOligarchyMonarchy.

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the dutch republic the rise and decline of a golden age 1581 1715

The Dutch Republic:The Rise and Decline of a Golden Age, 1581-1715

Why did the Dutch choose a republic?

Why a “golden age”?

To what extent was the Dutch Republic “the most bourgeois of all of Europe?

slide2

Classicalmodelsofgovernment:

DemocracyRepublicAristocracyOligarchyMonarchy

WhatformofgovernmentwouldEuropean

statesadopt,1648-1715?

HowwouldtheEuropeanstatesinfluence

eachotherintheirchoicesofgovernment?

-France

-England

-Russia

-theNetherlands

Whydoesitmatter?

the dutch republic and the global economy of the 17th century
The Dutch Republic and the Global Economy of the 17th Century
  • What important innovations of the 17th century transformed the global economy?
  • To what extent did European consumerism shape shape global economy?
  • What is the connection between the global economy and the Dutch republic’s golden age?
slide5
The emergence of Dutch power:

Anti Spanish & Anti Hapsburg resistance

1581 dutch constitution
1581: Dutch Constitution

“As it is apparent to all that a prince is constituted by God to be ruler of a people, to defend them from oppression and violence as the shepherd his sheep…and when he does not behave, on the contrary, oppresses them, seeking opportunities to infringe their ancient customs and privileges, then he is no longer a prince but a tyrant, and the subjects are to consider him in no other view”

chronology the rise
Chronology: The Rise
  • 1609: Twelve Years’ Truce recognizes an independent Dutch state in northern provinces; founding of the Bank of Amsterdam
  • 1612: Manhattan Island settled as a Dutch colony; New Haarlem colony created
  • 1621: The Dutch West India Company is Created; Dutch prepare for war against Spain (30 Years’ War)
chronology the height
Chronology: The Height
  • 1652: Portuguese South Africa is turned over to the VOC; origin of Afrikaaners
  • 1640s-1660’s: Series of Navigation Acts passed by British Parliament against the Dutch
  • 1670’s: French government issues first mercantilist policies directed against the Dutch and English
why a golden age
Why a Golden Age?
  • SOCIAL: religious tolerance,bourgeoisie dominate
  • POLITICAL: Mercantile oligarchy balanced by the House of Orange “staatholder” (military ruler); relative political freedom
  • INTELLECTUAL: Scientific Revolution and

Enlightenment begin here

  • CULTURE: Dutch masters – painting
  • ECONOMICS: Financial & Shipping Power
chronology the decline
Chronology: The Decline
  • 1688: The Glorious Revolution in England

William of Orange (Dutch) and his Scottish wife, Mary, assume the royal crown of England.

  • 1670’s – 1710’s: Series of commercial wars weaken the Dutch economy & govt
  • 1715: Treaty of Utrecht. British mercantile power eclipses the Dutch.
slide11

An openness to capitalism

THE TULIP INDUSTRY

slide14
“An Old Jew”

Rembrandt van Rijn

slide16

View of Delft,

by Vermeer.

slide17
“Study:

Head of a Negro”

Rembrandt van Rijn

christian huyghens 1629 1695
Christian Huyghens (1629-1695)
  • Dutch scientist who worked mainly in physics and mathematics
  • Refined the telescope
  • Invented clocks with pendulums
  • Developed the wave theory of light
hugo grotius 1583 1645
Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645
  • Father of modern

international law

  • Developed the “just war” theory (only wars of defense are justifiable)
  • Refined international maritime law
baruch spinozza philosopher 1632 1677
Baruch Spinozza,Philosopher, 1632-1677
  • Portuguese Jew who fled to the Netherlands
  • Revived medieval Islamic tolerance
  • “god is in everything, and there is one god”
  • Father of Modern religious tolerance
balthazar bekker
Balthazar Bekker
  • Wrote World Bewitched (1691) to demonstrate the unscientific basis of witch accusations
  • Delivered a decisive blow against superstitious beliefs among literate intellectuals
using art as a primary source
Using art as a primary source.
  • Study your assigned painting and discuss the following:

-who might be in the painting

-What is the setting

-Who might be the audience

-What is going on

  • Using your notes from the readings in Palmer and KGO on the Dutch Republic, imagine a spoken dialogue (or monologue) by the person(s) in your assigned painting. It must include references to at least THREE of the “SPICE” factors and contain some kind of a catchy hook.

3. Be prepared to present your dialogue to the class. Your written work will be collected and graded; bonus points for a high impact public performance.

wars of commerce
Wars of commerce:
  • Phase I: 1652-1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
  • Phase II: 1688-1715 Wars of Louis XIV

1688-1697 The Grand Alliance & The Nine Years’ War

1702-1714 The War of the Spanish Succession

1714 Treaties of Utrecht

  • Phase III: 1756-1763 Seven Years’ War