509 BC – 27 BC The Rise of the Roman Republic
Rome’s greatest achievements: • Established the first Republicand the principle of separation of powers; • Used law and government to unite many different regions, cultures and people. [a trend of cosmopolitanism started during the Hellenistic Age] • Practical engineering projects to promote civilization: roads, bridges, aqueducts, sewers, bath houses and amphitheatres.
Caesar Augustus asked Rome’s greatest poet, Virgil to write a poem to glorify the founding of Rome [30-19 BCE] 12 books/ 1-6: Odyssey 7-12: The Iliad
Romulus and Remus-twin sons of the god Mars, and Princess Rhea who feared for their lives
The Archaeological Record • 2500 BC- Paleolithic settlements • 1500 BC The Bronze Age • 1000 BC tombs of cremated dead with bronze tools and weapons • 800 BC Distinct groups occupied the Italian peninsula- Umbrians, the Sabines, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Latins
Three advantages • 1) built on several hills • 2) Towards the end of the Tiber River • 3) Only 15 miles from the sea
The Etruscans • 753-509 BC • Older, more advanced culture • Drained marshes • Built sewer system • Constructed roads, sewers. temples & public buildings
5 of last 7 kings were Etruscanturned the small fishing village into a thriving citydeveloped the archbuilt the Servian Wallbuilt the circus maximusgladiatorial games
The Republic is established, 509 BC • The last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, ignored the Senate and was overthrown, the Latin patricians (wealthy landowners) created a representative government.
The Roman Senate: • Senators came from the Patrician class • Acted as an advisory body to the king/consuls • Controlled the finances; money for public works • Served as a Jury for treason, conspiracy, murder, & foreign relations
Early Roman society consisted of two classes: Patricians and Plebeians… Plebeian grievances included: Enslavement for debt Discrimination in the courts Intermarriage with patricians was forbidden Lack of political representation Absence of a written code of laws Granting citizenship to outsiders while denying it to indigenous plebeian farmers
The Struggle of the Orders494 – 287 BC • 494 BC – Office of the Tribune created • 460 BC – Voting: residence replaced wealth • 450 BC – Twelve Tables • 445 BC – Lex Canuleia-marriage • 367 BC – Licinian-Sextian Rogation-consuls • 287 BC – Lex Hortensia- Plebeian Council
Roman Expansion • 493 BC – Battle of Lake Regillus/Latin League • 396 BC – Battle of Veii/Etruscans • 390 C – first & only setback – Gauls seige on Rome • 350 BC - Romans bounced back- rebuilt the Servian Wall and remodeled the army • 340- 290 BC The Latin Wars/Roman Federation • 282-270 BC defeated Greeks/Tarentum & Epirus • By 264 BC, 5 major world powers: Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Carthage and Rome
By 264 BC, 5 major world powers: Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Carthage and Rome
By 264 BC, Rome had achieved two important successes: • It had secured social cohesion by redressing the grievances of the plebeians • It had increased its military might by conquering the peninsula, thus insuring the human resources with which it would conquer the Mediterranean world.
the mythological twins, the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, on horseback. • The Battle of Lake Regillus, 493 BC
Defeating the Etruscans- The Battle of Veii, 396 BC Horatius At The Bridge
The Latin Wars340- 338 BC; 326-304 B.C.&298-290 B.C.The Roman Federation
282-270 BC Rome fought the Greeks of Tarentum and their ally- King Pyrrhus of Epirus