The Later Republic The end of the Republic and Rise of Augustus
Objectives • What were the main reasons for the failure of the Roman Republic and the consolidation of power by Augustus? • How did the reforms of the Gracchi illustrate the growing tensions in the Roman Republic
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Effects of Roman Expansion • The frontiers of Rome as of 133 BCE: Mesopotamia to Germany, • Problems generated in part by acquisition of vast Empire • Two Main themes • The gradual extension of Roman citizenship rights in Italy • The expansion of Roman Dominion over the Mediterranean world
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Effects of Roman Expansion • The problems of small farmers: Burdened by military service, cheap grain, farmers sold out and moved to Rome • There they joined the unemployed and discontented Proletariat, so named because their only contribution was Proles “children”: • Rich learned about improved farming methods from Greeks and Carthaginians. They introduced large-scale farming of Olive oil and Wine. • Latifundia: large estates.
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Effects of Roman Expansion • Latifundia: complicated system due to the fact that the Roman government would lease part of their territory to anyone who would provide a % of the crops or animals raised on it. • Corruption of Government was another problem, Provincial officials took advantage of their opportunities. • Government in practice was a Senatorial oligarchy. Wars tend to strengthen the executive power within a state. (Rome, Senate had such power)
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Effects of Roman Expansion • By mid 2nd century BCE, Senate/government was in the hands of the wealthiest, self-serving Senate, which could not cope with the problems of governing a world state. • Property of the many, coupled with the great wealth of the few, contrasted dramatically with the old Roman traits of discipline, simplicity, and respect for authority.
Reforms of the Gracchi • Reform programs of The Gracchi Brothers • Awareness of Rome’s serious social and economic problems led to reform. • Tiberius Gracchus goal for reform was to restore the small landowner • 133 BCE T Gracchus was elected Tribune at large at 29 • Proposes to the Tribal Assembly an act limiting the holding of public lands to 320 acres per male citizen, + 160 acres for each to two-grown up sons. • Much of the public land would continue to be held by the present occupants and their heirs as private property, the rest of the land was to be taken back and granted to the poor in small plots of 9-18 acres.
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Reform programs of The Gracchi Brothers • Senate makes move: opposing Senators persuaded one of the tribunes to veto the measure, (Claiming that a tribune who opposed the will of the people had no right to his office.” • T. Gracchus had the assembly depose the tribune, the bill passed • Stood fore reelection as Tribune, unprecedented • Partisans of the Senate murdered T Gracchus and 300 of his followers
The Late Republic 133 BCE • Gaius Gracchus • In 123 BCE, elected Tribune • In addition to allocating public land to the poor, he proposed establishing Roman colonies in southern Italy and in Africa. • To protect the poor against speculating in the grain market, he committed the gov’t to the purchase of storage and distribution of wheat to the urban poor at a reduced price. • Granting of citizenship to all of Rome’s Italian allies, who felt they were being mistreated by Roman officials. This cost Gaius the support of the Roman proletariat. • Gaius was defeated for a 3rd term in 121 BCE, the Senate reacted by force and in a riot killed off 3000 of Gaius supporters claiming they were “protecting the state and suppressing tyrants.” • Throughout these actions the Senate had shown that it had no intention of initiating needed domestic reforms, or allowing others to do so.
Aftermath of the Gracchi • Turmoil in foreign policy • Marius would be the leader to fill the void • Conflict arose over the dependent kingdom of Numidia • The kingdom was long ruled by the aid of Scipio Africana as Zama, Masinissa • When Masinissa’s son in 118 BCE died the sons of the former king attempt to take over. • Jugurtha, their cousin, bribed the Senate, and showed great energy. IN 112 BCE he took the capital Cirta, and killed one of the pretenders. • The death of several Romans however, could not be overlooked.
Aftermath of the Gracchi • Turmoil in foreign policy • The war was insignificant, by politically significant • The incompetence and lethargy of the Senate in directing foreign affairs were made apparent • Marius, then Military Tribune, gained support of the equestrians, and elected consul in 107 BCE. He was a “New Man”. • The African command went to Marius, and he put down open opposition after one critical battle. • Later Marius was committed to a long dragged out struggle nit eh Algerian Mts.
Aftermath of the Gracchi • Rise of Marius • Sulla Made Quaestors and became ruler of Mauretania and persuaded the King to betray Jugurtha • No sooner did this end, then Northern troubles as various tribes began to cause trouble • Roman Generals had sought to check their attempts with failure in southern Gaul in 105 BCE • Marius was elected Consul a second time in 104 where he crushed the Teutones near Aquae Sextiae (Aix) in 102 BCE and the Cimbi the next year in the Po Valley at Vercellae.
Aftermath of the Gracchi • Rise of Marius • In the year 100 he was selected consul again • In the year 100 Marisu would see a major land law in favor of his veterans and serious riots at the elections in the fall ensued. • The Senate passes Senatus Consultum Ultimum and ordered Marius to arrest his friends • This was done, even in the Senate • The New Army • One reform was far more tactical, he waived the ancestral requirement that soldiers hold at least a small property qualification and accepted volunteers for the sake of pay and booty • Troops had always been given land at the conclusion of war, and it had stopped shortly before 150 BCE • The power of the generals was also political, • Enlisted men commonly served for 6 years, became more professional , their loyalty was increasingly centered on their specific legion, which had its own standard of “eagle’ • In the hands of Sulla, Caesar, and Pompey the new army was to prove itself the greatest in history.
Politics in the Declining Republic • Factions and divisions • The Conservative Wing (Optimates): stood for Senatorial dominion • Sulla, Pompey, and Cicero were is the Optimates • Populares: a more enterprising group, more self-seeking men, some discontented aristocrats, idealistic reformers • Populares: generally endorsed Gracchi reforms • Divisions such as these became difficult
The Italian War and 1st Mithridatic war • Between 90-85 BCE, conservatives refused to face problems • Italian War (90-88BCE) revolt of Italian allies who had been rebuffed • After the murder of Drusus, the Italians revolted and created a separate confederacy with its capital at Corfinium, renamed Italia. • Rome granted citizenship 1st to all allies who had not revolted, then to the rebels, provide they resumed their loyalty • Extensive military action was required to put down the central mountaineers who persisted.
The Italian War and 1st Mithridatic war • Rise of Sulla • Sulla became a rising star in the Italian War, elected consul in 88. • Mithridates king of Pontus, attacks and invades Aegean • Mithridates managed to get the Greeks to rise up. • Sulla obtained command of the army, Marius raised the Populares and secured new order that the should be commander. • Sulla appealed to the army and marched it back on Rome, the first to do so, to secure it against the Populares. Marius fled.
Sulla • Carried out reforms that restricted liberty of the Tribal (Tribune) Assembly • Dealt with the foreign threat, left Italy • Populares revived and took Rome by force, Marius killed some of his enemies among the Optimates, elected Consul for 7th time, then died, successor was L. Cornelius Cinna who was more conciliatory • 87-85 BCE Sulla concentrates on war with Mithridates in the East. Drove him out of Greece, in 85 concluded compromise peace with Mithridates
Sulla • Gained the support of the Greek upper classes who saw their position more secure under Roman rule • While Mithridates incited the lower classes to rise against the Romans and the Greek upper classes. • Sulla managed to put upper classes in charge thereby cementing their relationship to Rome; • The Upper classes of the Hellenistic world would stick firmly with Rome through the torrents of Civil War; that loyalty was eventually to hold and uphold the eastern Roman or Byzantium empire.
Civil War and Dictatorship • Sulla returns to Rome to meet Cinna who has been raising troops, but has dies in a mutiny and the power of the Populares vanishes. • In 83-82, small band of Populares organizes against Sulla, Civil War ensues • Sulla and Pompey battle the Populares at the gates of Rome. Sulla appointed Dictator
Civil War and Dictatorship • Sulla’s Reforms • Settles old scores with Populares, proscribed • Wealthy suffered because of Sulla’s need for money and the land to pay 120,000 troops • Power of Republic placed in hands of a Reconstructed Senate, 300 new members from the ranks of equestrians and wealthier Italians • From this point, the 20 Quaestors elected each year automatically passed into the Senate so its membership would be maintained without recourse to censors. • The Senate received formal powers to veto all legislation, limits placed on running for tribune. • This reconstruction would not last 10 years.
Civil War and Dictatorship • Sulla’s Reform • Sulla did correct some of the weaknesses of the government • Sulla resigned dictatorship in 79 BCE and retired to Campania, where he died 1 year later • Risen from poverty, he was remarkable, though he stood on the side of the Optimates in the end, he terrifically weakened the constitutional practices of the Republic by his own example • Sulla’s solution to the political problems of Rome, was not to last and other civil wars will follow.
Collapse of Roman Republic • Between 78-43 BCE • Rome settles accounts with Mithridates, and expands its powers outside the Mediterranean watershed into continental Europe • Potent effects at Rome, Politician manipulated the voters in elaborate chicanery that gave scope for the greatest political oratory of Roman times. • Besides speeches, there were other tools: political murder and gang warfare. • The period of C. Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) and M. Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE) • Cicero was one of the most important cultural figures in the 1000 years of Roman development • Both Caesar and Cicero stood above the figures to demonstrate the vitality of Roman civilization even though the old political framework is crumbling
Collapse of Roman Republic • Age of Cicero • Sulla had left the Senatorial aristocracy completely in control • The conservatives were more skilled in short term manipulation than in long term reform or compromise • Besides families, the provincials stressed to their Roman masters to ensure a stable order • Within Rome, the population divided between an increasing poor and wealthy.
Collapse of Roman Republic • Turbulence after Sulla • Rome faced a minor rebellion at the milvian bridge north of Rome. Due to Pompeius, who secured a command against an insurrection in Spain • Pompey would return in 71 BCE in triumph to put down the slave rebellion of Sparticus. • Social unrest of Sparticus rebellion emblematic of a continued threat across the last decades of the Republic, fear addressed by 6000 executions along the Appian way • Crassus and Pompey obtain Consul, Crasus remained din Rome building a skilled political machine. With the help of Caesar and L sergius Catilina. • Pompey seized the opportunity of piratical accounts to be granted Imperium over the Mediterranean. The Babinian law of 67 BCE granted him the power to build a navy.
Collapse of Roman Republic • Turbulence after Sulla • In 66 Pompey given authority to deal with Mithridates who had already worn down during the 3rd Mithridatic war. • Pompey took the initiative in 63 BCE after the defeat of Mithridates to annex the Seleucid heartland of Syria and Palestine and to reorganize roman rule I the east. • The Great feat among the Populares and Optimates in Rome was the Pompey would return like Sulla with a great army.