Objectives • Understand how the Roman Republic grew through a series of conquests. • Identify events leading to the decline of the Roman republic
Rome Grows Through Conquest • Roman growth on the Italian peninsula brings it into contact with Carthage. • Conflict between these two powers is referred to as the Punic Wars. • Punicus = Phoenician
The 1st Punic War (264-241BC) • Mostly a naval conflict brought about by the Roman desire to expel a Carthaginian garrison from Sicily • Results • Treaty in which both sides promised not to attack each others allies (Carthage paid a tribute for 10 years) • Rome gains its first territory off the Italian peninsula • Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia
The Second Punic War (218-202 BC) • How did it start? • Hannibal attacks over the Alps losing half of his men and 2/3rds of his elephants • New allies to Carthage (How? Why?) • Battle of Cannae: Hannibal captured or killed up to 70,000 Roman troops • For 10 years no Roman General would engage him in a large battle • Romans scorched earth. • Publius Cornelius Scipio • 204 BC Scipio lands in Africa after conquering the Punic Empire in Spain • 202 BC Battle of Zama (Hannibal’s mercenaries deserted)
The 3rd Punic War 146 BC • Rome decided to eliminate Carthage once and for all (Cato the Elder) "Carthago delenda est!" • They were once again economically successful • They violated the terms of their treaty by crossing a Roman imposed frontier in 149 BC • After a three year siege they completely wipe out Carthage in 146 BC • By 133 BC Rome controls all of the Mediterranean • Macedonia, Asia Minor, Africa, Spain
Outcome? • What does the outcome say about Rome? • How do you think this will affect Rome in the future? Socially, economically, militarily? • How does the term imperialism apply to this quote? “The Carthaginians fought for their own preservation and the sovereignty of Africa…the Romans, for supremacy and world domination.”
Consequences of Expansion Negative • Too much new territory would be hard to rule. Why? • Scorched Earth forces farmers to sell. • New foreign grain also drove the price of grain down (Irony) • Latifundia • Veterans forced to sell farms to the rich • Division in wealth leads to social problems • (1% of population owned 20% of all wealth, next 10% of pop. Controlled another 20% of all wealth) • GREED
Decline of the Republic • Rome now ruled by greed and dominated by the very rich over the poor masses. • Who will step up to help the poor?
Roman art sometimes consisted of _____ or a picture made from chips or colored stones. • _____ wrote epic poems trying to show that Rome’s past was as heroic as that of Greece. • Romans built _____, or stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman cities. • ______ proposed the theory that Earth was the center of the universe. • The Gaius and Tiberius_____ proposed many reforms that made them unpopular with the patricians. a. Virgil e. Ptolemy b. Hadrian f. Aqueducts c. Gracchus g. Mosaics d. Frescoes h. Octavian
The Gracchus Brothers • Plebian brothers who became Tribunes and attempted to reform the late Republic • Attempt to have the riches acquired in Roman conquest shared equally. • Outcome? Why?
Tiberius Gracchus • Proposed that land gained after the 2nd Punic War be re-distributed and limited to 300 acres per family • The rest would be redistributed to the poor • Became a threat to the rich/powerful • Tiberius his followers were massacred by members of the Senate
Gaius Gracchus • His plan was much more of a threat • Stabilizing the price of grain • Colonize the poor to relieve overcrowding • Wanted to extend citizenship to all allies • Consul had him killed with his followers (beaten with chairs in meeting)
The First Triumvirate • Pompey, Crassus and Caesar • Who, When, Where, Why?
The Rise Julius Caesar • Personal legions now common for rich/powerful • Elected Consul in 59 BCE, conquers Gaulby 50 BCE JC had 13 legions • After the death of Crassus in 53 BCE, Pompey (now sole Consul) began working against JC in Rome • When he crossed the Rubicon River in 49 BCE he began a civil war against Pompey’s army • By 45 BC he is victorious and ruled Rome as dictator for life.
The Reforms of Julius Caesar • Absolute Rule • Relocated 80,000 poor, gave poor conquered land • Increased Senate to 900. • Extended citizenship
The Death of Julius Caesar • March 15, 44 BC JC was assassinated by the Senate (Cassius and Brutus) • They had no real plan 13 years of civil war that will lead to the end of the Republic
The Second Triumvirate • Who? Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus • What? No real plan, split Republic 3 ways. Problems? • Lepidus (Africa) • Antony (East) • Octavian (West)
Antony and Cleopatra • Antony married Cleopatra in 37 BC who claimed that her son was actually the heir to JC not Octavian • Antony and Cleopatra are defeated at the Battle of Actium • Octavian was now the master of all of Rome “Augustus”
Augustus • Octavian takes over and is proclaimed Augustus “the revered one” by Senate. 27 BCE • Stabilizes government • Census • Beginning of poor leadership (4 bad emperors) Why? • Caligula, Claudius, Tiberius, Nero
Roman Society • Slavery was widespread (up to 30% of population), esp. in urban areas. • Conditions differed greatly but overall bad Spartacus in 73 BC • Living Conditions? • Public Programs: • Façade of grandeur masked real problems • “Bread and Circuses”