I. The Segregation System During the 1890’s, many states throughout the nation, but especially in the South, passed “Jim Crow” laws aimed at segregating (or separating) the races. There were segregated schools, railroad cars, elevators, and rest rooms.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court case in which the court upheld segregation by ruling that “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
14th Amendment • Provides a broad definition of citizenship (The purpose of the Citizenship Clause was to provide citizenship to former slaves born in the United States) • The amendment requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all persons within their jurisdictions • Due Process: …nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law
Growing Movement Forms • New job opportunities from WWII • Freedoms and victories from fighting in WWII • Campaigned for Voting rights • Challenged Jim Crow Laws • Organized campaigns can bring change, led by the NAACP
“The moment I shook Jackie Robinson’s hand, I knew that this would be a big part of my baseball career,” Shuba said. “I played at Chaney High School (Youngstown) with black kids and already accepted them as teammates and friends. When it came to shaking Jackie’s hand, there was no question. He was on our side; he was on our team.
Brown v. Bd. Of Education 1954 Supreme Court case challenging segregation in public schools; the court ruled that separate facilities were unequal and an unconstitutional violation of the 14th Amendment. (Brown II) Thurgood Marshall Brown Family
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 • Fifty Thousand African Americans • led by MLK organized a boycott • against the bus system of Montgomery, • AL when Rosa Parks was arrested for • refusing to give up her seat to a white • passenger. • Non-violent protest resulted • in 1956 Supreme Court • outlawed bus segregation
Crisis in Little Rock 1957 • “Little Rock Nine” was to integrate • Central HS. • Elizabeth Eckford bravely walked • alone through a crowd of angry, • jeering whites before she was turned • away from entering Little Rock’s • Central High School. • National Guard was 1st • used to prevent entry • Ike used soldiers to • escort LRN to classes • TV showed events to US
Grassroot Organizations Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC):An organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC):An organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rights movement.