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Abnormal Psychology. Overview. Is mental illness different from medical illness? How common is mental illness? How is mental illness diagnosed? Examples of mental disorders. The Mind-Body Problem. Is mental illness distinct from medical illness? Assumes a duality of mind and body

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Is mental illness different from medical illness?
  • How common is mental illness?
  • How is mental illness diagnosed?
  • Examples of mental disorders
the mind body problem
The Mind-Body Problem
  • Is mental illness distinct from medical illness?
  • Assumes a duality of mind and body
  • Reminder: everything we think and do is related to brain activity
how common is mental illness
How Common is Mental Illness?
  • About 50% of the population experiences at least one mental illness.
  • Almost everyone will either have a mental illness or know somebody who does
diagnosing psychological disorders
Diagnosing Psychological Disorders
  • Diagnosis has pros and cons
  • Reliability varies according to diagnostic method and type of disorder
  • Use of DSM-IV
dsm iv axes
DSM-IV Axes
  • 1. Major Clinical Syndromes
  • 2. Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
  • 3. General Medical Conditions
  • 4. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
  • 5. Global Assessment of Functioning
examples of axis i disorders
Examples of Axis I Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
    • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
major depressive disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
  • bad mood
  • lack of interest or motivation
  • abnormal eating
  • abnormal sleeping
  • difficulty concentrating
  • feeling worthless
  • suicidal thoughts
mdd possible causes
MDD: Possible Causes
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Neurotransmitter imbalance, e.g. insufficient serotonin
  • Stress and related hormonal changes, e.g. increased cortisol level
  • Learned Helplessness
obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • obsessions: persistent, irrational thoughts
  • compulsions: impulses to perform repeated behaviors
ocd possible causes
OCD: Possible Causes
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Neurotransmitter problem, e.g., underactive GABA system (inhibitory neurotransmitter)
  • Brain abnormality, e.g., decreased white matter (axons)
  • Learned response to reduce anxiety
schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
  • NOT “split personality”
  • Disordered thinking
  • Symptoms vary according to subtype
paranoid schizophrenia
Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Delusions
    • Grandeur
    • Paranoia
    • Reference
  • Hallucinations, esp. auditory
catatonic schizophrenia
Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Disordered movement
    • Rigidity
    • Wild movement
disorganized schizophrenia
Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized speech
    • Loose associations
    • Neologisms
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Inappropriate Affect
schizophrenia other subtypes
Schizophrenia: Other Subtypes
  • Undifferentiated: pattern does not fall into any of the other categories
  • Residual: No current symptoms, but previous episodes of symptoms
schizophrenia possible causes
Schizophrenia: Possible Causes
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Abnormality in brain function/structure, e.g., frontal lobes
  • Early exposure to viruses
  • Abnormal dopamine system
    • Too much: positive symptoms
    • Too little: negative symptoms