Abnormal Psychology. A Power Point With Stiles. Welcome to 1-800-PSYCH. Hello, welcome to the Psychiatric Hotline. If you are obsessive-compulsive, please press 1 repeatedly. If you are co-dependent, please ask someone to press 2. If you have multiple personalities, press 3,4,5, and 6.
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Abnormal Psychology A Power Point With Stiles
Welcome to 1-800-PSYCH • Hello, welcome to the Psychiatric Hotline. • If you are obsessive-compulsive, please press 1 repeatedly. • If you are co-dependent, please ask someone to press 2. • If you have multiple personalities, press 3,4,5, and 6. • If you are paranoid-delusional, we know who you are and what you want. Just stay on the line so we can trace the call. • If you are schizophrenic, listen carefully and a little voice will tell you which number to press.
Mental Health Statistics • 2 million “in-patient” in psychiatric units • 2.4 million group home residents • 15% utilize treatments for psychological disorders • 400 million world wide are in need of psychological assistance
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology • Demonological & Supernatural • Trephination • Medical Model • Hippocrates 4th Century • Dominated after 15th Century (Asylums) • Also called the Biological Model Father of Medicine
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders • Biopsychological Model • Diagnosis by Symptoms • Therapy based on medical intervention • Gaining more credibility • Helped to initiate Health Reforms
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders Biological (evolution, individual genes, brain structures and chemistry) • Bio-psycho-social Model • Eclectic • Drugs & cognitive Therapies Psychological (stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related, perceptions and memories) Sociocultural (roles, expectations, definition of normality and disorder
Is Mr. Thompson Abnormal? • The city of San Diego evicted 54 year old Richard Thompson and all his belongings from his home. His belongings included shirts, pants, dozens, of shoes, several bibles, a cooler, a tool chest, lawn chairs, a barbecue grill, tin plates, bird-cages, two pet rats, and his self fashioned bed. For the previous 9 months, Thompson had lived happily and without any problems in a downtown storm drain (sewer). Because the city does not allow people to live in storm drains, Thompson was evicted from his underground storm-drain home and forbidden to return. Although Thompson later lived in several care centers and mental hospitals, he much preferred the privacy and comfort of the sewer. (Grimaldi, 1986) • Is Thompson’s living in the sewer abnormal?
U, M A D ? • Unjustifiable • Sad vs. Depression • Maladaptive • Harmful • Atypical • Not shared by many (visions) • Disturbing Snowy Farr
David Rosenhan: Pseudo-Patient Experiment • Investigated reliability of psychiatric diagnoses • Eight healthy people entered psychiatric hospitals complaining of hearing strange voices • Once admitted to the hospital, they behaved normally and claimed that the voices had disappeared
Rosenhan: Results • Staff treated patients as if they were really ill • Staff noted “abnormal” symptoms • Kept patients for an average of 19 days • Discharged with diagnosis of “schizophrenia in remission”
Rosenhan: Nonexistent Impostor Experiment • Told hospital staff to expect pseudo-patients (“impostors”) • No pseudo-patients were actually sent, but staff identified 41 anyway (these were, in fact, real patients)
Rosenhan: Implications • Psychiatrists disputed the results • Prompted changes in psychiatric diagnosis • The DSM-IV
Bi-Polar Bi-Polar Schizophrenic Schizophrenic DSM-IV • Classification System • Provides Diagnostic Criteria • 5 AXES • Reliable? ! • Labeling –advantages and disadvantages Alcoholic 1952 2011 Depressed Obsessive-compulsive
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders • Psychoanalytic Model • Inspired by Freud • “Talking Cure” • Dominated early to mid 20th century • Long Term • Free Association • Dream Analysis
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders • Behavioral Model • Emphasis on Learning • Observational Learning • Systematic Desensitization • Aversion Therapy • Token Economies • Flooding + =
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders OH NO! I only got 98%. • Cognitive Model • Irrational thought processes are the cause of psychological disorders • Popular model • Rational Emotive Therapy • Cognitive Therapy 98%
efining Abnormality D-D-D • Deviant • Distressful • Dysfunctional Snowy Farr