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Abnormal Psychology. Defining Abnormal Behavior. What is abnormal behavior? statistical infrequency e.g. mental retardation personal distress e. g. depression violation of social norms e.g., alcoholism Abnormal behavior is behavior that causes:

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defining abnormal behavior
Defining Abnormal Behavior
  • What is abnormal behavior?
    • statistical infrequency
      • e.g. mental retardation
    • personal distress
      • e. g. depression
    • violation of social norms
      • e.g., alcoholism
  • Abnormal behavior is behavior that causes:
    • significant impairment in social or occupational functioning
    • Significant distress in self or others
causes of abnormal behavior
Causes of Abnormal Behavior
  • Biological factors
    • e.g., neurotransmitters
  • Psychological factors
    • e.g. traumatic stressors
  • Sociocultural factors
    • e.g. “downward” social drift
  • An interactive approach: Biopsychosocial
classifying abnormal behavior
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV)
  • Multiaxial system
    • I: Primary classification
    • II: Personality disorders
    • III: General medical conditions
    • IV: Psychosocial stressors
    • V: Current level of functioning
categories of mental disorders
Categories of Mental Disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
    • Psychological disorders that include the following main features:
      • Excessive fear (out of proportion to the feared stimulus)
      • Phsical symptoms (e.g. racing heart, sweatiness)
      • Apprehensive expectations and thoughts
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Consists of persistent anxiety for at least a month
    • Individual is unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety
  • Panic disorder
    • Panic attacks coupled with at least one month of worry about having another panic attack
anxiety disorders9
Anxiety Disorders
  • Agoraphobia
    • Individuals often lead very restricted lives- not leaving the house at all.
    • characterized by an intense fear of:
      • Having a panic attack and being humiliated or unable to find help
anxiety disorders10
Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobic disorder
    • Individual has irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation
  • Social phobia
    • Intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations
anxiety disorders11
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Individual has recurrent unwanted thoughts that will not go away (obsession) and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsion)
      • Common themes are contamination or doubting
anxiety disorders12
Anxiety Disorders
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    • Develops through exposure to an extremely traumatic event
    • Anxiety symptoms may immediately follow the trauma or be delayed for many years
dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative disorders
    • Involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity
  • Dissociative amnesia
    • Memory loss caused by extensive psychological stress
dissociative disorders14
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative fugue
    • Individual not only develops amnesia, but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity
  • Dissociative identity disorder
    • Formerly called multiple personality disorder
    • Individuals have two or more distinct personalities or selves
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major depressive disorder
    • Individual experiences depressed characteristics for at least two weeks
    • Symptoms are:
      • Cognitive
      • Emotional
      • somatic
  • Dysthymic disorder
    • More chronic than major depressive disorders and has fewer symptoms.
mood disorders16
Mood Disorders
  • Bipolar disorder
    • A mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania
      • Euphoria
      • Excitability and hyperactivity
    • Person may experience depression and mania
causes of mood disorders
Causes of Mood Disorders
  • Biological causes
    • Heredity and brain processes
  • Psychological causes
    • Learned helplessness
      • occurs when individuals are exposed to aversive stimulation, such as prolonged stress or pain, over which they have no control
  • Schizophrenia
    • A severe psychological disorder characterized by:
      • Disturbances in affect
        • e.g. flat or inappropriate
      • Disturbances in speech and behavior
        • e.g. formal thought disorder
      • Distortions in cognition
        • e.g., delusions and hallucinations
types of schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized schizophrenia
    • Individual has delusions and hallucinations that have little or no recognizable meaning
  • Catatonic schizophrenia
    • Most prominent characteristic is disturbances in motor behavior
      • e.g. catatonic rigidity
types of schizophrenia20
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid schizophrenia
    • Characterized by delusions of reference, grandeur, and persecution
  • Undifferentiated schizophrenia
    • Characterized by disorganized behavior, hallucinations, delusions, and incoherence
causes of schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Biological factors
    • Heredity and neurobiological factors
      • The dopamine hypothesis
  • Psychosocial factors
    • Diathesis-stress view
      • A combination of biogenetic disposition and stress causes schizophrenia
personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders
    • Chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into the individual’s personality
odd eccentric cluster
Odd/Eccentric Cluster
  • Paranoid
  • Schizoid
  • Schizotypal
dramatic emotionally problematic cluster
Dramatic/Emotionally Problematic Cluster
  • Histrionic
  • Narcissistic
  • Antisocial
  • Borderline
chronic fearfulness avoidant cluster
Chronic Fearfulness/Avoidant Cluster
  • Avoidant
  • Dependent
  • Obsessive-compulsive
  • Passive-aggressive