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Unit 12. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY. UNIT OVERVIEW. Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders Rates of Disorder. INTRODUCTION. How should we define psychological disorders?

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unit overview
UNIT OVERVIEW
  • Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Somatoform Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Personality Disorders
  • Rates of Disorder
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • How should we define psychological disorders?
  • How should we understand disorders?
  • How should we classify psychological disorders?
defining psychological disorders
DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • Psychological disorders
    • Deviant behavior
    • Distressful behavior
    • Harmful dysfunctional behavior
  • Definition varies by context/culture
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
understanding psychological disorders the medical model
UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS:THE MEDICAL MODEL
  • Philippe Pinel
  • Medical model
    • Mental illness (psychopathology)
understanding psychological disordeers the biopsychosocial approach
UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDEERS:THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH
  • Interaction of nature and nurture
  • Influence of culture on disorders
classifying psychological disorders
CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    • DSM-IV-TR
    • DSM-5
  • International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
  • Criticisms of the DSM
labeling psychological disorders
LABELING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • Rosenhan’s study
  • Power of labels
    • Preconception can stigmatize
  • Insanity label
  • Stereotypes of the mentally ill
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
anxiety disorders1
ANXIETY DISORDERS
  • Anxiety disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Panic disorder
    • Phobia
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder
taylor manifest anxiety scale
TAYLOR MANIFEST ANXIETY SCALE

1. I do not tire quickly

2. I believe I am no more nervous than others

3. I have very few headaches

4. I work under a great deal of tension

5. I frequently notice my hand shakes when I try do something

6. I blush no more often than others

7. I have diarrhea one a month or more

8. I worry quite a bit over possible misfortunes

9. I practically never blush

10. I am often afraid that I am going to blush

11. My hands and feet are usually warm enough

12. I sweat very easily even on cool days

13. Sometimes when embarrassed, I break out in a sweat

14. I hardly ever notice my heart pounding, and I am seldom short of breath

15. I feel hungry almost all of the time

16. I am very seldom troubled by constipation

17. I have a great deal of stomach trouble

slide24

18. I have had periods in which I lost sleep over worry

19. I am easily embarrassed

20. I am more sensitive than most other people

21. I frequently find myself worrying about something

22. I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be

23. I am usually calm and not easily upset

24. I feel anxiety about something or someone almost all of the time

25. I am happy most of the time

26. It makes me nervous to have to wait

27. Sometimes I become so excited I find it hard to get to sleep

28. I have sometimes felt that difficulties piling up so high I couldn't get over them

29. I admit I have felt worried beyond reason over small things

30. I have very few fears compared to my friends

31. I certainly feel useless at times

32. I find it hard to keep my mind on a task or job

33. I am usually self-conscious

34. I am inclined to take things hard

35. At times I think I am no good at all

36. I am certainly lacking in self-confidence

37. I sometimes feel that I am about to go to pieces

38. I am entirely self-confident

generalized anxiety disorder
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • 2/3 women
    • Free floating anxiety
panic disorder
PANIC DISORDER
  • Panic disorder
    • Panic attacks
phobias
PHOBIAS
  • Phobias
    • Specific phobia
    • Social phobia
    • Agoraphobia
obsessive compulsive disorder
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • An obsession versus a compulsion
    • Checkers
    • Hand washers
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSZNnz9SM4g&noredirect=1
post traumatic stress disorder
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    • PTSD
    • “shellshock” or “battle fatigue”
    • Not just due to a war situation
  • Post-traumatic growth
understanding anxiety disorders the learning perspective
UNDERSTANDING ANXIETY DISORDERS:THE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
  • Fear conditioning
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Reinforcement
  • Observational learning
understanding axniety disorders the biological perspective
UNDERSTANDING AXNIETY DISORDERS:THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Natural selection
  • Genes
    • Anxiety gene
    • Glutamate
  • The Brain
    • Anterior cingulate cortex
somatoform disorder
SOMATOFORM DISORDER
  • Somatoform disorder
    • Somatic (body)
    • Conversion disorder
    • Hypochondriasis
dissociative disorders1
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  • Dissociative disorders
    • Fugue state
    • Dissociate (become separated)
dissociative identity disorder
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER
  • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
    • Multiple personality disorder
understanding dissociative identity disorder
UNDERSTANDING DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER
  • Genuine disorder or not?
  • DID rates
  • Therapist’s creation
  • Differences are too great
  • DID and other disorders
mood disorders1
MOOD DISORDERS
  • Mood disorders
    • Major depressive disorder
    • Bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • Major depressive disorder
    • Lethargy
    • Feelings of worthlessness
    • Loss of interest in family and friends
    • Loss of interest in activities
bipolar disorder
BIPOLAR DISORDER
  • Bipolar Disorder
    • Mania (manic)
      • Overtalkative, overactive, elated, little need for sleep, etc.
    • Bipolar disorder and creativity
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXLWa8XuJc8
understanding mood disorders
UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS
  • Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression
  • Depression is widespread
  • Compared with men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression
  • Most major depressive episodes self-terminate
  • Stressful events related to work, marriage and close relationships often precede depression
  • With each new generation, depression is striking earlier and affecting more people
understanding mood disorders the biological perspective
UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Genetic Influences
    • Mood disorders run in families
      • Heritability
      • Linkage analysis
  • The depressed brain
  • Biochemical influences
    • Norepinephrine and serotonin
understanding mood disorders the social cognitive perspective
UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:THE SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
  • Negative Thoughts and Moods Interact
    • Self-defeating beliefs
      • Learned helplessness
      • Overthinking
    • Explanatory style
      • Stable, global, internal explanations
    • Cause versus indictor of depression?
understanding mood disorders the social cognitive perspective1
UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:THE SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
  • Depression’s Vicious Cycle
    • Stressful experience
    • Negative explanatory style
    • Depressed mood
    • Cognitive and behavioral changes
slide70

UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:

THE VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRESSION

slide71

UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:

THE VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRESSION

slide72

UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:

THE VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRESSION

slide73

UNDERSTANDING MOOD DISORDERS:

THE VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEPRESSION

symptoms of schizophrenia
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Schizophrenia (split mind)
    • Not multiple personalities
symptoms of schizophrenia disorganized thinking
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:DISORGANIZED THINKING
  • Disorganized thinking
    • Delusions
      • Delusions of persecution (paranoid)/Word Salad
    • Breakdown in selective attention
symptoms of schizophrenia disturbed perceptions
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:DISTURBED PERCEPTIONS
  • Disturbed perceptions
    • Hallucinations
      • hearing voices

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWYwckFrksg

symptoms of schizophrenia inappropriate emotions and actions
SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:INAPPROPRIATE EMOTIONS AND ACTIONS
  • Inappropriate Emotions
    • Flat affect
  • Inappropriate Actions
    • Catatonia
    • Disruptive social behavior
major types of schizophrenia
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual

Positive

Negative

major types of schizophrenia1
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

  • Features incoherent speech, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.
  • For example… talking to imaginary people

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual Type

major types of schizophrenia2
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

  • Involves either stupor or extreme excitement.
  • Two forms
  • Catatonic Stupor:Patients may remain motionless for hours, even days, …. sometimes holding rigid, statue like poses.
  • Catatonic Excitement:Patients become agitated, hyperactive

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual Type

major types of schizophrenia3
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

  • Prominent feature: combination of delusions and hallucinations. This becomes the basis of their real life!!

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual Type

major types of schizophrenia4
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

  • Persons displaying a combination of symptoms that do not clearly fit in one of the other categories

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual Type

major types of schizophrenia5
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Disorganized

  • Individuals who have had a past episode of schizophrenia but are free of symptoms

Catatonic

Paranoid

Undifferentiated

Residual Type

major types of schizophrenia6
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Any form in which the person displays active symptoms(e.g. delusions, hallucinations)

PositiveSchizophrenia

NegativeSchizophrenia

major types of schizophrenia7
MAJOR TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Any form distinguished by deficits, such as withdrawal and poverty of thought processes

PositiveSchizophrenia

NegativeSchizophrenia

onset and development
ONSET AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Statistics on schizophrenia
  • Onset of the disease
  • Positive versus negative symptoms
  • Chronic (process) schizophrenia
  • Acute (reactive) schizophrenia
understanding schizophrenia brain abnormalities
UNDERSTANDING SCHIZOPHRENIA:BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
  • Dopamine Overactivity
    • Dopamine – D4 dopamine receptor
    • Dopamine blocking drugs
  • Glutamate
understanding schizophrenia brain abnormalities1
UNDERSTANDING SCHIZOPHRENIA:BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
  • Abnormal Brain Activity and Anatomy
    • Frontal lobe and core brain activity
    • Fluid filled areas of the brain
understanding schizophrenia brain abnormalities2
UNDERSTANDING SCHIZOPHRENIA:BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
  • Maternal Virus During Pregnancy
    • Studies on maternal activity and schizophrenia
    • Influence of the flu during pregnancy
understanding schizophrenia genetic factors
UNDERSTANDING SCHIZOPHRENIA:GENETIC FACTORS
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Twin studies
  • Genetics and environmental influences
understanding schizophrenia psychological factors
UNDERSTANDING SCHIZOPHRENIA:PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
  • Possible warning signs
    • Mother severely schizophrenic
    • Birth complications (low weight/oxygen deprivation)
    • Separation from parents
    • Short attention span
    • Poor muscle coordination
    • Disruptive or withdrawn behavior
    • Emotional unpredictability
    • Poor peer relations and solo play
personality disorders1
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
  • Personality Disorders
    • Anxiety cluster
    • Eccentric cluster
    • Dramatic/impulsive cluster
antisocial personality disorder
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
  • Antisocial personality disorder
    • Sociopath or psychopath
  • Understanding antisocial personality disorder
rates of disorder1
RATES OF DISORDER
  • Mental health statistics
  • Influence of poverty
  • Other factors