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Abnormal Psychology. Chapter 1 What is Abnormal?. How do we define abnormality?. Deviation from social or situational norms Statistical rarity Personally distressing or affecting one’s ability to function. Abnormality v. Mental Illness.

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Abnormal Psychology


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 What is Abnormal?

    2. How do we define abnormality? • Deviation from social or situational norms • Statistical rarity • Personally distressing or affecting one’s ability to function

    3. Abnormality v. Mental Illness • The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders – IV – TR. • What does the DSM do? Provides groupings of mental disorders. Provides criterion for the diagnosing of disorders (labeling). Defines disorders (mental health epidemiology). Prevalence - # of active cases Incidence – # of new cases over a given time period Increases reliability & validity in diagnosing.

    4. Problems or limitations with the DSM • Labeling • Does not explain the causes of disorders • Allows for clinical interpretation and subjectivity • Does not define Insanity.

    5. Historical Views • Hippocrates • 4 Bodily fluids (humors) out of balance • Hysteria caused by a wandering uterus • Middle Ages • Demonology • Trepanning: For primitive “therapists,” refers to boring, chipping, or bashing holes into a patient’s head; for modern usage, refers to any surgical procedure in which a hole is bored into the skull • In primitive times it was unlikely the patient would survive; this may have been a goal • Goal presumably to relieve pressure or rid the person of evil spirits • Ergotism: Psychotic-like symptoms that come from ergot poisoning • Ergot is a natural source of LSD • Ergot occurs with rye • Early Asylums (St. Mary’s of Bethlehem) • PhillippePinel: French physician who initiated humane treatment of mental patients in 1793 • Created the first mental hospital

    6. Beginning of the Modern Era • Freud • Willhelm Wundt (1871) • Behaviorism • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Problems • Research becomes more defined. • Correlational Research (naturalistic observation, survey, case study). • Experimental Research