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Fitness PowerPoint Presentation

Fitness

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Fitness

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  1. Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations Fitness

  2. Fitness involves physical activity or exercise. The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. All of these characteristics describe a healthy body. Today’s world encourages sedentary lifestyles (boo!) that foster the development of several chronic diseases. [Then you die] Fitness

  3. Fitness • Benefits of Fitness • Restful sleep • Nutritional health • Optimal body composition • Optimal bone density • Resistance to colds and other infectious diseases • Lower risks of some types of cancer • Strong circulation and lung function • Lower risk of cardiovascular disease • Lower risk of type 2 diabetes • Reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women • Lower incidence and severity of anxiety and depression • Long life and high quality of life in the later years

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  5. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that people need to participate in 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week for health benefits and 60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week to maintain a healthy body weight. Fitness

  6. THE 100-METER MOSEY

  7. Thought of the day Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes.    That way, when you criticize them, you're a mile away and you have their shoes

  8. Developing Fitness • Guidelines for conditioning that are achieved through training. • Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Frequency – 3-5 days per week • Intensity – 55-90% maximum heart rate • Time/Duration – 20-60 minutes Fitness

  9. Guidelines for conditioning • Strength • Frequency – 2-3 days per week • Intensity – enough to enhance muscle strength, muscle endurance, and improve body composition • Time/Duration – 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises Fitness

  10. I see no reason Why You should not engage in Strenuous activity Well keep looking, keep looking!

  11. Guidelines for conditioning • Flexibility • Frequency – 2-3 days per week • Intensity – enough to develop and maintain a full range of motion • Time/Duration – 4 repetitions of 10-30 seconds per muscle group Fitness

  12. Developing Fitness • The Overload Principle – to slightly increase comfortable capacity in each area. Also called the progressive overload principle. • Increase frequency – how often an activity is performed • Increase intensity – the degree of exertion while exercising • Increase time/duration – the length of time Fitness

  13. Developing Fitness • The Body’s Response to Physical Activity • Hypertrophy is muscle gain in size and strength, the result of repeated work. • Atrophy is muscle loss in size and strength, the result of lack of activity. • Other Tips • Be active all week. • Use proper equipment and attire. • Use proper form when exercising. • Include warm-ups and cool-downs. • Challenge yourself, but not every time you exercise. • Pay attention to body signals. • Build intensity slowly. Fitness

  14. Seven days without exercise makes one weak!

  15. Developing Fitness • Cautions on Starting • Healthy people can start with a moderate exercise program without seeking medical advise first. • People with risk factors may need medical advice. Fitness

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  17. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Cardiorespiratory conditioning is measured by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). • Increases cardiac output and oxygen delivery • Increases stroke volume • Slows resting pulse • Increases breathing efficiency • Improves circulation • Reduces blood pressure Fitness

  18. w@io R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 w@io R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 w@io R 114'14Et4,T ssout-co 13E AC-XGF-P INVO -STIR 0 0 To prevent a heart attack, take one aspirin every day. Take it for a walk, then take it to the gym, Then take it for a bike ride

  19. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Muscle Conditioning • Muscles use oxygen efficiently. • Muscles can burn fat longer. • A Balanced Fitness Program • Individualized • Cardiorespiratory • Muscle strength and endurance • Flexibility • Choose an activity you enjoy Fitness

  20. Weight Training • Also called resistance training • Increases muscle strength and endurance • Prevents and manages cardiovascular disease • Enhances psychological well-being • Maximizes and maintains bone mass • Enhances performance in other sports Fitness

  21. The Energy Systems of Physical Activity—ATP and CP • ATP is adenosine triphosphate – a high-energy compound that delivers energy instantaneously. • CP is creatine phosphate – a high-energy compound in the muscles, used anaerobically. • The Energy-Yielding Nutrients • Nutrients work together while one may predominate. • Depends on diet, intensity and duration of the activity, and training Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  22. Extremely intense activity • 8-10 seconds • ATP-CP (immediately available) • No oxygen needed (anaerobic) • Activity example – 100 yard dash, shot put • Very highly intense activity • 20 seconds to 3 minutes • ATP from carbohydrate (lactic acid) • No oxygen needed (anaerobic) • Activity example – ¼ mile run at maximum speed Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  23. Highly intense activity • 3-20 minutes • ATP from carbohydrate • Oxygen needed (aerobic) • Activity example – cycling, swimming, running • Moderately intense activity • More than 20 minutes • ATP from fat • Oxygen needed (aerobic) • Activity example – hiking Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  24. Glucose Use during Physical Activity • Diet Affects Glycogen Storage and Use • High-carbohydrate diets increase glycogen stores • Enhance endurance Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  25. Intensity of Activity Affects Glycogen Use • Moderate activities use glycogen slowly. • Intense activities use glycogen quickly. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  26. Glucose Use during Physical Activity • Lactate • Low intensity activities can clear lactic acid from the blood. • During highly intense activities lactic acid accumulates and activity can only be maintained for 1-3 minutes. • Lactate is converted to glucose in the liver (Cori cycle). • Duration of Activity Affects Glycogen Use • First 20 minutes – primarily use glycogen • After 20 minutes – use glycogen and fat Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  27. Glucose Use during Physical Activity • “Hitting the wall” – exhaustion of glucose stores • Maximizing Glucose Supply • High-carbohydrate diet – 8 g/kg body weight or 70% of total energy intake • Glucose during activities if activity last longer than 45 minutes (sports drinks, diluted fruit juice) • Eat approximately 60 g of high-carbohydrate foods after activity. • Carbohydrate loading is a regime of diet and exercise that maximizes glycogen storage. It is also called glycogen loading or glycogen super compensation. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  28. Glucose Use during Physical Activity • Glucose during Activity • Activities lasting longer than 45 minutes • Light carbohydrate snacks under 200 kcalories • Glucose after Activity • High-carbohydrate meal within 15 minutes accelerates glycogen storage by 300% • High-carbohydrate meal within 2 hours and rate of glycogen storage declines by half • High-glycemic index foods Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  29. Glucose Use during Physical Activity • Training Affects Glycogen Use • Muscles that repeatedly deplete glycogen through hard work will store greater amounts of glycogen. • Conditioned muscles rely less on glycogen and more on fat for energy. • Trained muscle cells have more mitochondria and can use oxygen better. • Untrained muscle cells depend more heavily on anaerobic pathways. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  30. Fat Use during Physical Activity • Duration of Activity Affects Fat Use • Beginning of activity uses fatty acids in the blood • After 20 minutes, uses body fat as major fuel • Intensity of Activity Affects Fat Use • As intensity increases, fat makes less of a contribution to the fuel mix • Oxygen must be abundant to break down fat Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  31. Fat Use during Physical Activity • Training Affects Fat Use • The better trained the muscles, the more fat is used • The better trained, the stronger the heart and lung to deliver oxygen • If better trained, then hormones prevent glucose release from the liver, so they rely more on fat Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  32. Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times • Protein Used in Muscle Building • Synthesis of protein is suppressed during activity. • After activity protein synthesis accelerates. • Repeated activities cause body adaptations to support needs. • Remodeling • Daily, ¼ to 1 ounce of body protein is added to muscle mass during muscle-building phase. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  33. Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times • Protein Used as Fuel • During physical activity muscles use amino acids for fuel. • 10% of total fuel used • Diet Affects Protein Use during Activity • Diets rich in energy and carbohydrate allow the body to use less protein for fuel. • Carbohydrates spare protein. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  34. Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times • Intensity and Duration of Activity Affect Protein Use during Activity • If glycogen stores get depleted, then more reliance on protein • Anaerobic strength training demands more protein to build muscles but not large amounts. • Training Affects Protein Use • The more trained the less protein used for energy Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  35. Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times • Protein Recommendations for Active People • Athletes in training need more protein than sedentary people. • Athletes in training need to meet energy and carbohydrate needs first. • Adult RDA: for males 56 g/day, for females 44 g/day • Strength athletes: for males 112-119 g/day, females 88-94 g/day • Endurance athletes: for males 84-112 g/day, females 66-88 g/day • U.S. average intake of protein: for males 95 g/day, females 65 g/day Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  36. Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity • Supplements • Do not enhance performance • Deficiencies may impede performance • Timing makes a difference; supplements take hours or days to combine with cells. • Nutrient-dense foods provide nutrients needed. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  37. Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity • Vitamin E • Protects against oxidative stress • Does not improve performance • More research needed • Vegetables oils and antioxidant fruits and vegetables • Iron • Iron losses in sweat • Small blood losses in digestive tract • Poor iron absorption Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  38. Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity • Iron Deficiency • Common in physically active young women • Consume good dietary sources of iron • Iron-Deficiency Anemia • Impairs physical performance • Cannot perform aerobic activity and tire easily Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  39. Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity • Sports Anemia • Low blood hemoglobin for a short time • Adaptive, temporary response to endurance activity • Does not require supplementation • Iron Recommendations for Athletes • Blood tests should guide the decision • Depends on the individual Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  40. Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity • Fluid Losses via Sweat • Muscle heat is 15-20 times greater when active than at rest • Cooling mechanism • 1 liter of sweat dissipates 600 kcalories of heat Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  41. Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity • Hyperthermia – an above-normal body temperature • Body heat builds up • Triggers maximum sweating without sweat evaporation Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity

  42. Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity • Symptoms of heat stroke – a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluid • Headache • Nausea • Dizziness • Clumsiness • Stumbling • Hot, dry skin • Confusion or other mental changes