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Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations. Fitness. Fitness involves physical activity or exercise. The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. All of these characteristics describe a healthy body.

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fitness
Fitness involves physical activity or exercise.

The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle endurance.

All of these characteristics describe a healthy body.

Today’s world encourages sedentary lifestyles (boo!) that foster the development of several chronic diseases. [Then you die]

Fitness
fitness1
Fitness
  • Benefits of Fitness
    • Restful sleep
    • Nutritional health
    • Optimal body composition
    • Optimal bone density
    • Resistance to colds and other infectious diseases
  • Lower risks of some types of cancer
  • Strong circulation and lung function
  • Lower risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Lower risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women
  • Lower incidence and severity of anxiety and depression
  • Long life and high quality of life in the later years
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fitness2
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that people need to participate in

30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week for health benefits and

60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week to maintain a healthy body weight.

Fitness
thought of the day
Thought of the day

Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in their shoes.

   That way, when you criticize them, you're a mile away and you have their shoes

fitness3
Developing Fitness
    • Guidelines for conditioning that are achieved through training.
      • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
        • Frequency – 3-5 days per week
        • Intensity – 55-90% maximum heart rate
        • Time/Duration – 20-60 minutes
Fitness
fitness4
Guidelines for conditioning
    • Strength
      • Frequency – 2-3 days per week
      • Intensity – enough to enhance muscle strength, muscle endurance, and improve body composition
      • Time/Duration – 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises
Fitness
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I see no reason

Why You should not

engage in Strenuous

activity

Well keep looking, keep looking!

fitness5
Guidelines for conditioning
    • Flexibility
      • Frequency – 2-3 days per week
      • Intensity – enough to develop and maintain a full range of motion
      • Time/Duration – 4 repetitions of 10-30 seconds per muscle group
Fitness
fitness6
Developing Fitness
    • The Overload Principle – to slightly increase comfortable capacity in each area.

Also called the progressive overload principle.

      • Increase frequency – how often an activity is performed
      • Increase intensity – the degree of exertion while exercising
      • Increase time/duration – the length of time
Fitness
fitness7
Developing Fitness
    • The Body’s Response to Physical Activity
      • Hypertrophy is muscle gain in size and strength, the result of repeated work.
      • Atrophy is muscle loss in size and strength, the result of lack of activity.
      • Other Tips
        • Be active all week.
        • Use proper equipment and attire.
        • Use proper form when exercising.
        • Include warm-ups and cool-downs.
        • Challenge yourself, but not every time you exercise.
        • Pay attention to body signals.
        • Build intensity slowly.
Fitness
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Developing Fitness
    • Cautions on Starting
      • Healthy people can start with a moderate exercise program without seeking medical advise first.
      • People with risk factors may need medical advice.
Fitness
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Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Cardiorespiratory conditioning is measured by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max).
      • Increases cardiac output and oxygen delivery
      • Increases stroke volume
      • Slows resting pulse
      • Increases breathing efficiency
      • Improves circulation
      • Reduces blood pressure
Fitness
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To prevent a heart attack, take one aspirin every day.

Take it for a walk, then take it to the gym,

Then take it for a bike ride

fitness10
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Muscle Conditioning
      • Muscles use oxygen efficiently.
      • Muscles can burn fat longer.
    • A Balanced Fitness Program
      • Individualized
      • Cardiorespiratory
      • Muscle strength and endurance
      • Flexibility
      • Choose an activity you enjoy
Fitness
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Weight Training
    • Also called resistance training
    • Increases muscle strength and endurance
    • Prevents and manages cardiovascular disease
    • Enhances psychological well-being
    • Maximizes and maintains bone mass
    • Enhances performance in other sports
Fitness
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity
The Energy Systems of Physical Activity—ATP and CP
    • ATP is adenosine triphosphate – a high-energy compound that delivers energy instantaneously.
    • CP is creatine phosphate – a high-energy compound in the muscles, used anaerobically.
    • The Energy-Yielding Nutrients
      • Nutrients work together while one may predominate.
      • Depends on diet, intensity and duration of the activity, and training
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity1
Extremely intense activity
    • 8-10 seconds
    • ATP-CP (immediately available)
    • No oxygen needed (anaerobic)
    • Activity example – 100 yard dash, shot put
  • Very highly intense activity
    • 20 seconds to 3 minutes
    • ATP from carbohydrate (lactic acid)
    • No oxygen needed (anaerobic)
    • Activity example – ¼ mile run at maximum speed
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity2
Highly intense activity
    • 3-20 minutes
    • ATP from carbohydrate
    • Oxygen needed (aerobic)
    • Activity example – cycling, swimming, running
  • Moderately intense activity
    • More than 20 minutes
    • ATP from fat
    • Oxygen needed (aerobic)
    • Activity example – hiking
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity3
Glucose Use during Physical Activity
    • Diet Affects Glycogen Storage and Use
      • High-carbohydrate diets increase glycogen stores
      • Enhance endurance
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity4
Intensity of Activity Affects Glycogen Use
    • Moderate activities use glycogen slowly.
    • Intense activities use glycogen quickly.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity5
Glucose Use during Physical Activity
    • Lactate
      • Low intensity activities can clear lactic acid from the blood.
      • During highly intense activities lactic acid accumulates and activity can only be maintained for 1-3 minutes.
      • Lactate is converted to glucose in the liver (Cori cycle).
    • Duration of Activity Affects Glycogen Use
      • First 20 minutes – primarily use glycogen
      • After 20 minutes – use glycogen and fat
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity6
Glucose Use during Physical Activity
    • “Hitting the wall” – exhaustion of glucose stores
    • Maximizing Glucose Supply
      • High-carbohydrate diet – 8 g/kg body weight or 70% of total energy intake
      • Glucose during activities if activity last longer than 45 minutes (sports drinks, diluted fruit juice)
      • Eat approximately 60 g of high-carbohydrate foods after activity.
      • Carbohydrate loading is a regime of diet and exercise that maximizes glycogen storage. It is also called glycogen loading or glycogen super compensation.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity7
Glucose Use during Physical Activity
    • Glucose during Activity
      • Activities lasting longer than 45 minutes
      • Light carbohydrate snacks under 200 kcalories
    • Glucose after Activity
      • High-carbohydrate meal within 15 minutes accelerates glycogen storage by 300%
      • High-carbohydrate meal within 2 hours and rate of glycogen storage declines by half
      • High-glycemic index foods
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity8
Glucose Use during Physical Activity
    • Training Affects Glycogen Use
      • Muscles that repeatedly deplete glycogen through hard work will store greater amounts of glycogen.
      • Conditioned muscles rely less on glycogen and more on fat for energy.
      • Trained muscle cells have more mitochondria and can use oxygen better.
      • Untrained muscle cells depend more heavily on anaerobic pathways.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity9
Fat Use during Physical Activity
    • Duration of Activity Affects Fat Use
      • Beginning of activity uses fatty acids in the blood
      • After 20 minutes, uses body fat as major fuel
    • Intensity of Activity Affects Fat Use
      • As intensity increases, fat makes less of a contribution to the fuel mix
      • Oxygen must be abundant to break down fat
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity10
Fat Use during Physical Activity
    • Training Affects Fat Use
      • The better trained the muscles, the more fat is used
      • The better trained, the stronger the heart and lung to deliver oxygen
      • If better trained, then hormones prevent glucose release from the liver, so they rely more on fat
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity11
Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times
    • Protein Used in Muscle Building
      • Synthesis of protein is suppressed during activity.
      • After activity protein synthesis accelerates.
      • Repeated activities cause body adaptations to support needs.
      • Remodeling
      • Daily, ¼ to 1 ounce of body protein is added to muscle mass during muscle-building phase.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity12
Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times
    • Protein Used as Fuel
      • During physical activity muscles use amino acids for fuel.
      • 10% of total fuel used
    • Diet Affects Protein Use during Activity
      • Diets rich in energy and carbohydrate allow the body to use less protein for fuel.
      • Carbohydrates spare protein.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity13
Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times
    • Intensity and Duration of Activity Affect Protein Use during Activity
      • If glycogen stores get depleted, then more reliance on protein
      • Anaerobic strength training demands more protein to build muscles but not large amounts.
    • Training Affects Protein Use
      • The more trained the less protein used for energy
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity14
Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between Times
    • Protein Recommendations for Active People
      • Athletes in training need more protein than sedentary people.
      • Athletes in training need to meet energy and carbohydrate needs first.
      • Adult RDA: for males 56 g/day, for females 44 g/day
      • Strength athletes: for males 112-119 g/day, females 88-94 g/day
      • Endurance athletes: for males 84-112 g/day, females 66-88 g/day
      • U.S. average intake of protein: for males 95 g/day, females 65 g/day
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity15
Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity
    • Supplements
      • Do not enhance performance
      • Deficiencies may impede performance
      • Timing makes a difference; supplements take hours or days to combine with cells.
      • Nutrient-dense foods provide nutrients needed.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity16
Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity
    • Vitamin E
      • Protects against oxidative stress
      • Does not improve performance
      • More research needed
      • Vegetables oils and antioxidant fruits and vegetables
    • Iron
      • Iron losses in sweat
      • Small blood losses in digestive tract
      • Poor iron absorption
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity17
Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity
    • Iron Deficiency
      • Common in physically active young women
      • Consume good dietary sources of iron
    • Iron-Deficiency Anemia
      • Impairs physical performance
      • Cannot perform aerobic activity and tire easily
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity18
Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity
    • Sports Anemia
      • Low blood hemoglobin for a short time
      • Adaptive, temporary response to endurance activity
      • Does not require supplementation
    • Iron Recommendations for Athletes
      • Blood tests should guide the decision
      • Depends on the individual
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity19
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Fluid Losses via Sweat
      • Muscle heat is 15-20 times greater when active than at rest
      • Cooling mechanism
      • 1 liter of sweat dissipates 600 kcalories of heat
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity20
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Hyperthermia – an above-normal body temperature
      • Body heat builds up
      • Triggers maximum sweating without sweat evaporation
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity21
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
  • Symptoms of heat stroke – a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluid
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Dizziness
    • Clumsiness
    • Stumbling
    • Hot, dry skin
    • Confusion or other mental changes
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity22
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
  • Prevention of heat stroke
    • Drink fluids
    • Rest in the shade when tired
    • Wear appropriate clothing
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity23
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Hypothermia – a below-normal body temperature
      • Symptoms
        • Shivering and euphoria
        • Weakness, disorientation, and apathy
      • Prevention
        • Drink fluids
        • Wear appropriate clothing
      • Water Recommendations
        • 1.0 to 1.5 mL/kcal expended
        • ½ cup per 100 kcal expended
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity24
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Fluid Replacement via Hydration
      • Full hydration is imperative for athletes.
      • Those who are aware of their hourly sweat rate can replace lost fluids.
      • Plain, cool water is recommended.
      • Endurance athletes may require carbohydrate-containing beverages.
      • Hydration schedule
        • Two hours before activity – 2-3 cups
        • 15 minutes before activity – 1-2 cups
        • Every 15 minutes during activity – ½-2 cups
        • After activity – 2 cups for every pound of body weight lost
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity25
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Electrolyte Losses and Replacement
      • Greater in the untrained
      • Training improves electrolyte retention.
      • Eat regular diet meeting energy and nutrient needs
      • Endurance athletes may need sports drinks.
      • Salt tablets worsen dehydration and impair performance.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity26
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity
    • Hyponatremia
      • Decreased concentration of sodium in the blood
      • Causes
        • Excessive sweat
        • Overhydration
        • Drinking sports drinks during an activity; sports drinks offer glucose polymers
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity27
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
  • Symptoms of hyponatremia
    • Severe headache
    • Vomiting
    • Bloating
    • Confusion
    • Seizure
  • Prevention of hyponatremia
    • Replace sodium during prolonged events.
    • Do not restrict salt in diets the days before events.
energy systems fuels and nutrients to support activity28
Poor Beverage Choices: Caffeine and Alcohol
    • Caffeine is a stimulant.
    • Alcohol is not the beverage to replace fluids and carbohydrate.
Energy Systems, Fuels, and Nutrients to Support Activity
diets for physically active people
A diet that provides ample fluids and nutrient-dense foods to meet energy needs will enhance an athlete’s activity and overall health.

Pregame and postgame meals should be light and carbohydrate rich.

Diets for Physically Active People
diets for physically active people1
Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness
    • Water
      • Thirst mechanisms are not as reliable
      • Must be replenished
    • Nutrient Density – consume nutrient-dense foods that are high in carbohydrate, moderate in fat, and adequate in protein
Diets for Physically Active People
diets for physically active people2
Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness
    • Carbohydrate
      • 60-70% total energy intake
      • Avoid fiber-rich foods in the pregame meal.
      • Added sugar and fat may be needed during intensive training.
      • Liquid supplements should not replace foods.
      • 8-10 g carbohydrate/kg body weight during heavy training
    • Protein
      • Strength athletes: for males 112-119 g/day, females 88-94 g/day
      • Endurance athletes: for males 84-112 g/day, females 66-88 g/day
Diets for Physically Active People
diets for physically active people3
Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness
    • A Performance Diet Example
      • Total kcalories – 3000
      • 63% kcal from carbohydrate
      • 22% kcal from fat
      • 15% kcal from protein
      • All vitamin and mineral RDAs are met
Diets for Physically Active People
diets for physically active people4
Meals Before and After Competition
    • Pregame Meals
      • Fluids
      • 300-800 kcalories
      • Carbohydrate-rich foods low in fat and fiber
      • Light and easy to digest
    • Postgame Meals
      • High-carbohydrate meals
      • Liquids often preferred
Diets for Physically Active People
supplements as performance enhancing aids1
It is difficult to distinguish valid versus bogus claims about ergogenic aids.

Many individuals believe these drugs, supplements, or procedures will enhance physical performance in activities.

Some are harmless, some have dangerous side effects, and some are costly.

Most do not meet claims.

Supplements as Performance-Enhancing Aids
ergogenic aids
Ergogenic Aids
  • Substances promoted as ergogenic aids
    • Arginine – a nonessential amino acid
    • Boron – a nonessential mineral
    • Brewer’s yeast is falsely promoted as an energy booster.
    • Cell salts are sold as health promoting.
    • Coenzyme Q10 is not effective in improving athlete performance.
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is falsely promoted as an energy booster.
    • Epoetin is illegally used to increase oxygen capacity.
ergogenic aids1
Ergogenic Aids
  • Substances promoted as ergogenic aids
    • Gelatin is not a strength enhancer.
    • Ginseng has many side effects.
    • Glycine – a nonessential amino acid
    • Growth hormone releasers do not enhance performance.
    • High doses of guarana can stress the heart and cause panic attacks.
    • Herbal steroids or plant sterols do not enhance hormone activity.
    • HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate) claims to increase muscle mass and strength.
    • Inosine has been shown to reduce endurance of runners.
ergogenic aids2
Ergogenic Aids
  • Ma huang has many dangerous side effects.
  • Niacin does not enhance performance and has side effects.
  • Octacosanol has false promotions.
  • Ornithine – a nonessential amino acid
  • Pangamic acid does not speed oxygen delivery.
  • Phosphate pills do not extend endurance or increase efficiency of aerobic metabolism.
  • Pyruvate has common side effects of gas and diarrhea.
ergogenic aids3
Ergogenic Aids
  • Ribose has some false claims.
  • RNA (ribonucleic acid) does not enhance performance.
  • Royal jelly is falsely promoted.
  • Sodium bicarbonate may cause intestinal bloating and diarrhea.
  • Spirulina is potentially toxic.
  • Succinate is not a metabolic enhancer.
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is useless; it is digested.
  • Wheat germ oil is not an energy aid.
dietary supplements
Carnitine
    • Non-essential nutrient
    • Facilitates transfer of fatty acids across mitochondria membranes
    • Supplementation does not increase muscle carnitine or enhance exercise performance.
  • Chromium Picolinate
    • Essential mineral in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
    • Supplementation has no effect on strength, lean body mass, or body fat.
Dietary Supplements
dietary supplements1
Complete Nutrition Supplements
    • Taste good and provide food energy, but do not provide complete nutrition
    • Should not replace regular meals
  • Creatine
    • Some studies suggest improvement in muscle strength and size, cell hydration and glycogen loading capacity
    • Safety issues and side effects
Dietary Supplements
dietary supplements2
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
    • Derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid
    • Increases lean body mass in animals
    • Few human studies have been performed.
  • Caffeine
    • Caffeine can enhance performance by stimulating fatty acid release.
    • Adverse effects include stomach upset, nervousness, irritability, headaches, and diarrhea.
    • Use in moderation.
    • Use as an addition to other fluids, not as replacement.
  • Oxygenated Water
    • Oxygen cannot enter the bloodstream by way of the GI tract.
    • The body gets oxygen from the lungs.
Dietary Supplements
hormonal supplements
Anabolic Steroids
    • Illegal
    • Authorities ban use
    • Plant sterols from herbs are poorly absorbed.
    • Dangerous side effects on the body and the mind
Hormonal Supplements
hormonal supplements1
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and Androstenedione
    • Hormones that are precursors to testosterone
    • No evidence to support claims
    • Short-term effects are identified
  • Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
    • Used to build lean tissue and increase height if still growing
    • Extremely high cost
    • Many adverse side effects
Hormonal Supplements
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