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FITNESS. Unit One: Principles & Training. MIND. BODY. Spirit. The Balance of Fitness. Overall health requires one to have a healthy mind, a healthy body and a positive outlook. If the mind is not healthy it will affect the body negatively. 5 Components of Fitness.

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  1. FITNESS Unit One: Principles & Training

  2. MIND BODY Spirit The Balance of Fitness • Overall health requires one to have a healthy mind, a healthy body and a positive outlook. • If the mind is not healthy it will affect the body negatively.

  3. 5 Components of Fitness • Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Muscular Endurance • Muscular Strength • Flexibility • Body Composition

  4. 1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Efficiency of the heart, lungs, and blood vesselsin delivering oxygen and nutrients and removing wastes from the body. Examples: Running, cycling, cross country skiing

  5. Benefits of Improved Cardiorespiratory System • Increased blood flow to working muscles • Decrease stress and its effects of the body • Decrease risk of heart disease • Increased capillary density throughout body • “Cognitive Bump” up to 1 hour after training • Helps balance hormones

  6. 2. Muscular Endurance • Ability of muscle or muscle group to maintain a specific workload for a given period of time. Eg. Sit-ups, push-ups, chin-ups

  7. 3. Muscular Strength • The maximum force a muscle can exert in a single attempt. Eg. Resistance training

  8. Benefits of Improved Muscular Strength and Endurance • Increased metabolism • Increased bone density • Lower blood pressure • Reduced body fat • Balance hormones

  9. 4. Flexibility • Ability to move freely throughout a full, non-restricted, pain free range of motion about a joint of series of joints Eg. Stretching, yoga, diving, gymnastics

  10. Benefits of Improved Flexibility • Injury Prevention • Prevents muscle strains • Prevents low back pain • Improved posture • Leads to increased strength and speed

  11. 5. Body Composition Refers to the ratio of lean body mass and fat mass. Lean body mass includes muscle, bone, blood, water Percentage Body Fat (Athletes) Males: 6-14% Females: 14-20%

  12. Body Composition • BODY FAT: Fat cells also known as adipocytes, effect health in 2 ways. The number and size of adipocytes determine the percentage of fat in the body. • Healthy woman 17-25% fat • Healthy man 9-17% fat • Body needs a minimum amount of fat : cushion and protect organs, absorb vitamins, warmth/insulation, menstruation/child-bearing

  13. Methods of Appraising Body Composition 1. Body Mass Index Chart/Calculations • common chart indicating weight based on height • Neglects: Amount of Muscle and Skeletal Dimensions

  14. Methods of Appraising Body Composition 2. Pinch an Inch • Guideline: If you are able to pinch an inch of fat you are too fat? • Does not give accurate scientific results!

  15. Methods of Appraising Body Composition 3. Skin Fold Measurements • By measuring skin folds in selected sites of the body, calculations can be made to determine the percentage of fata person has • Fairly accurate if done properly

  16. Methods of Appraising Body Composition 4. Hydrostatic Weighing • Uses densityto determine the percentage of fat in the body • Submersed in water tank

  17. Training Principles

  18. What is Training/Exercise Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the body. Exercise is used to improve health, maintain fitness and is important as a means of physical rehabilitation.Makes the body more efficient

  19. F.I.T.T. Principle • Used when designing an exercise program F= Frequency I= Intensity T = Time T = Type

  20. 1. Frequency • The amount of time per week spent training • General guidelines to improve overall fitness is 3-5 x per week • Depends on individual’s level of fitness, aspirations, and type of training

  21. 2. Intensity • How hard an individual trains. • The intensity of the workout is usually determined by the heart rate.

  22. Calculating Your Target Heart Rate Maximum Heart Rate – the maximum number of times your heart can beat in one minute. • Calculate your Maximum Heart Rate(M.H.R.) M.H.R. = 220 – age • Eg. 17 yr old M.H.R. = 220 – 17 years old M.H.R. = 203 beats/min

  23. Calculating Your Target Heart Rate Calculate your Target Training Zone Your target training zone is 60-90% of your M.H.R. Lower Heart Rate = (220 – age) x .6 Higher Heart Rate = (220 – age) x .9 (trained) Therefore your Target Heart Rate is between _______ and ________ beats per minute.

  24. 3. Time • Amount of time spent in a single training session • Depends on athlete’s level of fitness, aspirations, and type of training

  25. 4. Type • What methods of training are you using. Eg. Aerobic, Anaerobic, both • Depends on level of fitness, goals, and sport or activity for which the individual is training

  26. Other Training Principles • The Principle of Overload • The Principle of Progression • The Principle of Specificity (S.A.I.D) • The Principle of Individual Differences • The Principle of Reversibility • The Principle of Diminishing Returns

  27. 1. Principle of Overload • To get stronger, the body must perform tasks that are more challenging than those to which it is accustomed. Physiological (Physical) Overload: Greater Intensity - more reps, more sets, more exercises, heavier weights Increase Time - longer workouts Greater Frequency – train more often emotional Types of Training – switch from aerobic to anaerobic, start training both Psychological (Brain) Overload: motivation, resiliency (rebounding from a bad loss or performance)

  28. 2. Principle of Progression • There is an optimal amount of overload that should be achieved and an optimal time frame for this overload to occur. Overload should be implemented gradually for maximum returns and reduced risk of injury.

  29. 3. Principle of Specificity • In order for specific outcomes to occur, training must be specific to those outcomes • EG. If you need to Improve your vertical jump, your exercise prescription should include explosive power such as exercises that target the legs

  30. 4. Principle of Individual Differences Every athlete has a different physical and psychological makeup • Pre-training fitness levels • Goals • Age and gender • Ability to recover from workouts • Ability to recover from injury

  31. 5. Principle of Reversibility • “Use it” or “Lose it” • Loss of one’s edge/intensity • Atrophy (muscle decreasing in size and weakening) • Reasons include: injury, reduced training, overtraining, burnout

  32. 6. Principle of Diminishing Returns • A person’s training gains will reflect that person’s prior level of training • Performance Plateau • Must change exercise prescription

  33. TRAINING METHODS • Resistance Training • Interval Training • Plyometric Training • Concurrent Training • Fartlek Training • Periodization

  34. 1. Resistance Moving or lifting with some form of resistance Resistance: weights, body weight, tubing, elastic bands, parachute, kettle bells, tire • Broken down into number of: sets, repetitions, rest, tempo (speed of repetition), loads, and volume Tempo: speed of concentric and eccentric contractions. Eg. 2 seconds for concentric contraction, 3 seconds for eccentric contraction

  35. 2. Interval Alternating periods of intensity within a given workout • Benefits both anaerobic and aerobic systems Considerations: • length of intense period • Intensity • length of rest • number of repetitions

  36. 3. Plyometrics “Stretch-shortening exercises” • Examples include: bounding, hopping, jumping, box jump drills • Used to develop strength and power • Caution: should not be used until athletes have a solid training base.

  37. 4. Concurrent Training all energy systems at the same time • Different types of training simultaneously • Great for general fitness!!! • Usually performed during the off-season • Ideal for keeping variety in a program Helps reduce chance of burnout!!!

  38. 5. Fartlek Means “speed play” • Includes increasing and decreasing speeds Eg. Sprint for 30 seconds, run slow for 2 minutes and repeat) • May change with terrain or how one feels.

  39. 6. Periodization Breakdown of year-long training • Three major seasons: off-season, pre-season, in-season • Macrocycle - the year or years • Mesocycle - months or weeks • Microcycle - day(s) or week

  40. The Energy Systems

  41. The Role of The Energy Systems The body possesses THREE different methods to produce energy. • Anaerobic Alactic • Anaerobic Lactic • Aerobic • Each method has strengths and limitations. • Training can affect one or all energy systems.

  42. 1. Anaerobic Alactic Energy System • High speed explosive movements (85-100% of maximum intensity) • Eg. 100m sprint, long jump, lifting heavy object, climbing stairs • The dominant source of energy for the first 10-15 seconds of exercise. Limitations: Quickly tapers off after 15 seconds Takes 2-5 minutes to replenish energy stores

  43. Anaerobic Alactic Energy System cont’d How to train the Anaerobic Alactic System Short training sets (5-15 seconds) Long rest periods between sets (allow full recovery: 3-5 minutes) High intensity training (heavy weights/resistance, fast running, quick movements)

  44. 2. Anaerobic Lactic Energy Systems • High speed explosive movements, generally 75%-85% of maximal intensity • Any exercise lasting 20 seconds to 3 minutes • Moderately high intensity and volume training Limitations: Takes approximately 15 seconds to produce energy Dominant energy system for up to 3 minutes.

  45. 2. Anaerobic Lactic Energy Systems How to train the Anaerobic Lactic System: • Training sets that are over 20 seconds and under 3 minutes • Relatively heavy weights/resistance. • High intensity (75 – 85% of maximum heart rate) • Ratio for work/rest is 1:2

  46. 3. Aerobic System • Repetitive movements, generally 50%-75% of max intensity • Short or no rest periods between sets • Moderately low intensity and high volume training Limitations: • Takes 3 minutes to become the dominant energy source

  47. Important Considerations for Training! • Rest and recovery times (more is not necessarily better) 2. Injury prevention techniques 3. Stretching 4. Sleep (8 – 10 hours) • Interest Level (Burnout vs. psychological motivation) 6. Warm-up and cool-down periods

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