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Fitness. Definition of fitness. Health Related Cardiovascular endurance (aerobic capacity) muscular strength local muscular endurance Anaerobic power (associated with speed) flexibility body composition. Skill Related Muscular power agility speed balance Coordination Reaction time.
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Health Related Cardiovascular endurance (aerobic capacity) muscular strength local muscular endurance Anaerobic power (associated with speed) flexibility body composition Skill Related Muscular power agility speed balance Coordination Reaction time COMPONENTS OF FITNESS
MUSCULAR STRENGTH • Definition:the force that a muscle / group of muscles can exert against a resistance in a single contraction (1RM) • Activities that require strength: • jostling for position • A rugby scrum • field events / throwing • weight lifting
Factors affecting the application of strength: • Recruitment (motor units)- how many have received the electrical impulse to contract. Governed by the strength of the impulse from the brain. • Cross sectional area – the larger the CSA the greater the strength (a direct linear relationship) • Joint angle and muscle length – greater strength 120 degrees • Fibre types – FT have greater strength than ST
Factors affecting the application of strength: • Age and gender of the person – males are generally stronger than females, as they have a larger CSA and higher levels of testosterone. Strength peaks between 20-30. • Speed of contraction – the slower the muscle contracts the more force it can generate. • Muscle shape and location – muscle fibre arrangement: pennate arrangements generate more force than fusiform.
MUSCULAR POWER • Definition : ability to use strength to produce an explosive effort • Depends on trade-off between strength and speed – slower contractions have more time to produce force (max power occurs when speed and force of contraction are 35% max) • Relies on phosphate anaerobic energy production and a high % FT fibres • Activities : throwing a shot put, leaping for a rebound
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • Definition : ability to work a muscle for extended periods, or repeated contractions below maximal effort • Activities : long distance running / swimming, gripping a tennis racquet • Factors affecting muscular endurance: • Temperature / circulation • Inorganic phosphate levels and ADP • Accumulation of lactic acid and hydrogen ions • Age and sex – because of strength factor • Cross education effect – one limb brings about improvements in musc endurance of other untrained limbs.
AEROBIC CAPACITY(CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE) • Definition : capacity to perform tasks involving the whole body for extended time using aerobic energy • Most important fitness component - also called stamina or heart-lung fitness • Requires cardio-respiratory efficiency in delivering O2 to muscles and removing wastes such as CO2 • Activities : most team sports, distance running, cycling, swimming
SPEED • Definition: ability to move body quickly and to sustain high intensity efforts using anaerobic energy (short duration / high intensity) • Activities : sprinting, long jump, making a lead in football • Speed activities also require strength and power • Factors affecting speed • Reaction time • Acceleration • Initial velocity • Strength • Tolerance of inorganic phosphates • Also note – genetic factors
FLEXIBILITY • Definition – ability of muscles, ligaments and tendons to allow movements about a joint or sequence of joints • Static (passive) flexibility : ability to use a joint through a great range of movement in a stationary position e.g. splits • Dynamic (active) flexibility: ability to use a joint and muscle through full range of movement with speed and without resistance e.g. kicking a football
Flexibility (continued) • Factors Affecting Flexibility: • type of joint / joint structure • resting length of muscles • Muscle temperature • body build • injury • age and gender • Skin resistance • Bone • disease
Flexibility (continued) • Specific Joint Flexibility and Sporting Activity • Flexibility varies from joint to joint and different degrees of flexibility are required in different parts of the body for different sports e.g. gymnast • Problems linked with lack of flexibility: • more tears and strains • bad body posture • health problems e.g. lower back pain • players unable to fulfil their potential
AGILITY • Definition. - ability to change position of the body quickly and precisely, still maintaining balance • Relies on anaerobic energy for speed and requires muscular power and flexibility • Activities - dodging, baulking, weaving and recovery in team games
BALANCE • Definition – ability to maintain equilibrium whilst moving (dynamic balance) or whilst stationary (static balance) • All activities require balance however it is more important in activities such as : surfing, cycling, gymnastics, horse riding
CO-ORDINATION • Definition – ability of the senses (sight and hearing), the nervous system and the muscles to work together to perform specific movements smoothly and accurately • More complex tasks require greater coordination. • Different types of co-ordination : • Foot-eye – to time contact between foot and ball, e.g. in soccer & Aussie Rules • Hand-eye – for correct position and timing between racquet/bat and ball e.g. tennis, baseball
BODY COMPOSITION • Definition – ratio of fat to non-fat components in the body • Body fat – essential fat in and around organs + storage fat in fat cells around the body. The amount of storage fat can be altered, assessed by skinfold tests. • Non-fat / Lean body weight – consists of muscles, bones, organs…Can be altered e.g. by weight training. • GENERALLY ASSESSED BY: • Somatotyping • Body fat determination (skin folds and densiometry) • BMI
Body Composition • Body composition is basis for somatotyping(classification of body type). Three classifications: • Endomorph (round, soft, little muscle definition) • Mesomorph (triangular, hard, good muscle definition) • Ectomorph (fragile, small bones, thin muscles) • Body composition can be altered- by diet and exercise. Athletes tend to be more mesomorphic than non-athletes as a result of training and genetic influence. Women carry more body fat than men, this explaining differences in athletic performance.
Exam Questions • List the main fitness component required by a swimmer as he pushes of the blocks for the start of a 50m swim? • Muscular power • Discuss one factor that affects the above fitness component. • CSA, gender, fibre type, fibre arrangement, age.
Exam Questions • Lauren Burns won a gold medal at the Sydney Olympics in the sport of Tae Kwon Do. This sport requires participants to be able to complete head high kicks. What type of flexibility is required to display these sorts of kicks? • Dynamic • Discuss one factor that affects flexibility in general? • Joint structure, temperature, age, gender
Exam Questions • State one of the main fitness components required by a soccer goal keeper. • Speed, agility, muscular power, anaerobic power • Give a definition for the above fitness component.
Exam Questions • The Southern ’80’ water ski race requires skiers to stand with one foot in front of the other on a single ski for between approx. 35-55 minutes whilst being pulled at extremely fast speeds by a speed boat. What fitness component is being used by the skiers? • LME – isometric contraction for long period of time