Gender Chapter 2
Discussion Outline • Terminology of Gender Studies • Theories of Gender Role development • Socialization Agents and Gender • Consequences of Traditional Socialization • Gender Inequality
Sex and Gender • What is the difference?
Sex • Biological distinction between females and males. • Factors used to determine biological sex: • Chromosomes: XX for female; XY for male • Gonads: Ovaries for female; testes for male • Hormones • Internal sex organs • External genitals • What does it mean if an individual is born intersexed?
Gender • Gender is more fluid—refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or female • it represents learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people as men or women. • The nature-nurture debate? • The story of David Reimer • The work of Margaret Mead
Gender and Socialization • Socialization • The process through which we learn attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors appropriate to the social positions we occupy • Gender roles: The social norms that dictate what is socially regarded as appropriate female and male behavior • When does gender role socialization begin?
Gender Roles in the United States • Gender-Role Socialization • Boys must be masculine • Active • Aggressive • Tough • Daring • Dominant • Girls must be feminine • Soft • Emotional • Sweet • Submissive
Gender Myths • We tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and typically male characteristics with strength. • He’s firm, but she’s stubborn. • He’s careful about details, but she’s picky. • He’s honest, but she’s opinionated. • He’s raising good points, but she’s “bitchy.” We tend to see men as strong, not emotional and women as emotional and not strong. Do these stereotypes continue to exist?
Gender Identity • Gender identity is the psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy, man or woman. • Gender dysphoria • Transexuals • The pregnant man?
Gender Role Ideology • Refers to beliefs about the proper role relationships between women and men in a given society • What is traditional American gender role ideology?
Traditional View and Gender Roles • Instrumental roles tend to be occupied by men in our society. They must be the provider and protector of the family. • Expressive roles in our society tend to be played by women—they provide emotional support to the family, nurturing, etc. • Should the man be the boss of the family?
Theories of Gender Development • Biosocial Theory (sociobiology) • Parental investment • controversial • Social learning theory • Reward and punishment • modeling
Gender and Socialization Agents • If sociology takes the stance that gender roles are learned through interaction with the environment, what agents influence the individual to behave masculine or feminine?
Gender and Socialization Agents • Family • Race/Ethnicity • Peers • Religion • Education • Economy • Mass media
Gender Stereotypes are expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex. Such expectations can have negative physical and psychological consequences for males and females
Consequences of Traditional Female Role Socialization Negative Positive Longer life expectancy Stronger relationship focus Keeping relationships on track Bonding with children • Less income • Higher Poverty rates • Negative Body Image • Less Marital Satisfaction
Consequences of Traditional Male Role Socialization Negative Positive Freedom of movement Greater pool of mates Norm of initiating a relationship Higher income • Identity based on work • Limited expression of emotions • Fear of intimacy • Custody disadvantages • Shorter lives
The Problem of Sexism Sexism is the assertion that one sex is innately inferior to the other Individuallevel: belief that one sex is superior to the other Institutionallevel: policies, procedures, and practices that produce unequal outcomes for men and women Patriarchy: system of social organization in which men have disproportionate share of power Sexism supports patriarchy by claiming that men are “better” than women and therefore should dominate them.
Gender Inequality Around the World • “More girls have been killed in then last fifty years, precisely because they were girls, than men were killed in all the battles of the twentieth century” (p. 250) • There is no nation where women and men are equals. • A History of global patriarchy • Survival rates and gender • Discrimination and persecution • Sex trafficking • Violent and sexual victimization • Literacy rates
Male Domination • The Economy-Women in the Workplace • The Gender wage gap- Women earn 81 cents on the dollar that men earn even with equal occupation and level of education • For women of color, earning discrimination is even greater • The Matrix of Domination- Social forces that contribute to the subordinate status of many women
What improvements have been made for the status of women in American society over the last half century? • Why?
Emergence of a Collective Consciousness • Feminism: belief in social, economic, and political equality for women • Early 19th century feminists won many victories, including 19th Amendment • 2nd feminism wave emerged in U.S. in 1960s • As women became aware of sexist attitudes and practices, began to challenge male dominance