What Can the World Learn from Singapore about Urban Transportation Systems? Presented by Professor David Boyce August 27, 2007 Slides from Singapore’s Land Transport Authority www.lta.gov.sg and Prof. D.-H. Lee, NUS.
What and where in the world is Singapore? • Singapore is an island nation located on the equator in southeast Asia near the Malay Peninsula. • The island is 270 sq. miles with 4.6 million residents (2007 est). (By comparison, Chicago is 234 sq. miles with nearly 3 million residents.) • Languages are English (commerce and education), Mandarin, Malay and Tamil, reflecting its diverse population: Chinese, Malaysian, Indonesian, and expatriates of the British Commonwealth and USA. • Singapore gained independence in 1965, and is a representative democracy controlled by one party, making it somewhat authoritarian in character.
Economy, Trade and Transportation • Singapore has a well-developed market economy based on manufacturing, and is diversifying further to foreign trade and tourism. • Per capita GDP is over US$ 29.9K; US is $ 44.2K. • Port of Singapore is one of the largest in the world. • Singapore’s airport is also world class: Singapore Airlines plus 80 other airlines connect Singapore to 179 cities in 57 countries (2005). • Singapore’s land transport system is a world leader in public transit, road pricing and ITS, with an effective system of car ownership restraint. • How do these land transport systems work together to serve the people of Singapore?
Land Use Planning and Development • Singapore from its beginning has stressed the development of housing for its people, including publicly owned housing estates with associated shopping districts. • Land development for commerce and industry has been well-coordinated, especially with regard to the location of transportation services. • The concept is shown in the next slides showing the relation of land development to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) corridors.
Overview of the Land Transport System • Total road length 3,110 km, including 150 km of expressways and 571 km of major arterials; • Vehicle population: 800,000, including over 400,000 private passenger cars; • Mass rapid transit: 65 stations, 138 km of tracks; • Bus transport: nearly 4,000 buses serving 200+ routes with two operators; • Taxi: 23,000 vehicle fleet with eight operators; • Mode share: 55% by bus and rail transit.
Public Transit System • Rail transit (MRT) emphasizes comfort and ease of use, but not high speed; LRT are automated lines. • Two areawide bus systems offer point-to-point and rail feeder services with frequency and fares set by competition; • Automated feeder service to rail stations in high density residential clusters; • Integrated, automatic fare collection system; • Transit infrastructure and vehicles provided by the government, with operating costs being paid by the farebox; • Widely available, low-cost taxi services.
N Rapid Transit Network - 2030 WOODLANDS SELETAR TAMPINES JURONG EAST Heavy Capacity Strategic MRT Medium Capacity Strategic LRT Light Capacity LRT
Expressway – Arterial Road System • Electronic Road Pricing to shift travel by route, time-of-day, mode, destination and frequency; • Road system operated with ITS technology (no time for details in this seminar).
Objective: Operate roads at Level of Service D or better.
Road Pricing • Manual road pricing, the Area Licensing Scheme, was introduced in the CBD in 1975; • That system needed much manpower, was inconvenient, and inflexible in varying road prices.
Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) • Automated the Area Licensing Scheme • Fully replaced the manual scheme in Sept. 1998 • A new generation of ERP is being studied
Gantry Equipment Antennae
Antennae • Vehicle Detectors
Antennae • Vehicle Detectors • Enforcement Cameras
1 Singapore $ ≈ US$ 0.66 (2003 point-by-point tolls)
4% 38% 11% 32% 15% 3% 34% 12% 39% 12%
ITS Deployment • Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System (EMAS) • Adaptive traffic signal control, GLIDE (Singapore’s version of SCATS) • Transit.Smart • Traffic.Smart • i-transport
Car Ownership Restraint Policies • Excise tax (over 100% of car value) • Annual road tax (about S$ 1,000) based on engine size and age • Certificate of Entitlement to license car for 10 years – about S$ 10,000 • High fuel prices relative to cost of production • Parking requirements and fees • Cars are not manufactured in Singapore, so there is no direct economic development impact of car purchases on the Singapore economy.
Current Status and Future Plans • During 1997-2007, S$ 3.4 B was spent on roads; • The 10th expressway will cost S$ 2.5 B for 5 km; • Future road construction is limited by lack of land, so S$ 20 B will be spent to increase the rail network from 150 km (S$ 13 B to date) to 215 km; • Bus improvements will reduce all headways to 10 minutes or less. • Even so, roads must be priced to avoid overuse; ERP is keeping roads moving at average speeds over 55 kph (33 mph);
Vehicle ownership taxes reduced from S$ 3.4 B (1997) to S$ 1.7 B (2006) as ERP was phased in; • Vehicle population increased from 680 K (1997) to 800 K (2006) as a result, but congestion did not increase; • Hence, ERP is more effective, and less expensive for motorists (S$ 90 M/year), but needs to be expanded to maintain the Level of Service D objective; • Next goal is to introduce continuous pricing over the system, rather than the current point-by-point pricing.