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Sustainable Cities: Urban Land Use & Management. Chapter 25. Key Concepts. Distribution of urban & rural populations. Factors determining urban development. Resource & environmental problems in urban areas. Effects of transportation systems on urban growth.

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key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Distribution of urban & rural populations
  • Factors determining urban development
  • Resource & environmental problems in urban areas
  • Effects of transportation systems on urban growth
  • Planning & controlling urban growth
  • Making cities more sustainable & desirable
urbanization and urban growth
Urbanization and Urban Growth

Urban (metropolitan) area = town plus its suburbs

Rural area = an area with a population less than 2,500 people

Village = group of rural households liked by custom, culture,

family ties. Historical utilization of natural resources

City = large number of people with a variety of professions

who depend on resources from the outside of city boundary

Urban growth: natural increase = births > deaths & immigration mostly from rural areas “pull factors” i.e. jobs, quality of live; & “push factors” i.e. poverty.

patterns of urban growth
Patterns of Urban Growth

Increasing proportion of population: By 2050 about 66% of the world’s people will be living in urban areas.

Great increase in large cities: Today, more than 400 cities have

over 1 mil. or more people. 19 megacities with over 10 mil. people

i.e.Tokyo (28 mil), Mexico City (18 mil), New York (17 mil).

slide5

Patterns of Urban Growth

Increasing rapidly in developing counties: 38% of the people in live in cities. But by 2025 it will be 54%. Many of these cities are already short on water, have waste & pollution problems.

Urban growth slower in developed countries: 75% of the people live in cities. But by 2025 it will be 82%.

Poverty in urban areas increasing: At least 1 billion people

live in crowed slums of inner cities. No access to water, sewer,

electricity, education etc. 100 mil people are homeless & sleep on

the streets.

slide6

Patterns of Urban Growth

  • Mexico City or “Makesicko City”
  • The world second largest city with 18 mil people.
  • Hence:
  • - server air pollution (over 4 mil. cars)
  • high unemployment rate, close to 50%
  • high crime rate
  • over one-third (= 6 mil.) of its residents live in slums
  • (barrios) without running water, sewer or electricity
  • high infection rates i.e. salmonella, hepatitis

- “Children of Mexico City”

general patterns of urbanization in the us
General Patterns of Urbanization in the US

Migration to large central cities

Migration from cities to suburbs

Migration from north & east to south & west

Urban sprawl, growth of low-density development on

the edge of cities. Encouraged by:

- availability of cheap land, (forests, agriculture fields etc.).

- government loans guarantees for new single-family homes

- government & state funding of highways

- low-cost gasoline encourage car use

- low interest mortgage

major urban regions in the us
Major Urban Regions in the US

75% of the US population live in urban areas occupying 3% of the country’s land area

impacts of urban sprawl
Impacts of Urban Sprawl

Water

Land and Biodiversity

Human Health

and Aesthetics

Increased runoff

Increased surface water

& groundwater pollution

Increased use of surface

water & groundwater

Decreased storage of

Surface water &

groundwater

Increased flooding

Decreased natural

Sewage treatment

Loss of cropland

Loss of forests &

grasslands

Contaminated drinking water & air

Noise pollution

Sky illumination at night

Traffic congestion

Loss of wetlands

Loss & fragmentation of

wildlife habitats

Increased wildlife roadkill

Increased soil erosion

slide10

Impacts of Urban Sprawl

Economic Effects

Higher taxes

Decline of downtown

business districts

Increased unemployment

in central city

Loss of tax base in central city

Energy, Air, and Climate

Increased energy use

and waste

Increased air pollution

Increased greenhouse gas

emissions

Enhanced global warming

Warmer microclimate

(heat island effect)

urban sprawl atlanta ga becoming a megalopolis
Urban Sprawl: Atlanta, GA becoming a megalopolis

kilometers

kilometers

0

32

1980

2000

Urban Sprawl

0

32

Rural:

Fewer than 320 people per square mile,

or 1 person per 2 acres on average

0

20

0

20

miles

miles

Pickens

Pickens

Cherokee

Cherokee

Bartow

Bartow

Forsyth

Forsyth

Suburban: Between 320 and 3,200 people per square mile, or up to 5 people per acre on average

Gwinnett

Cobb

Barrow

Barrow

Cobb

Pickens

Gwinnett

Pickens

Walton

Walton

Urban:

3,200 people or more per square mile

Fulton

Fulton

Newton

Carroll

Newton

Carroll

Fayette

Henry

Henry

Spalding

Coweta

Fayette

Fayette

Coweta

10-county metropolitan area

Spalding

general overview urban resource environmental problems
General Overview:Urban Resource & Environmental Problems

Urban dweller occupy 4% of the earth’s land area, they consume 75% of the earth’s resources

Air & water pollution; (industrial & photochemical smog); waste management (landfills, groundwater contamination).

Reduction in vegetation, & wildlife, introduction of

exotic & feral domestic species.

slide13

General Overview:Urban Resource & Environmental Problems

Importation of food, energy, & materials, hence not a

self-sustaining system.

Climate impacts: urban heat island

Noise pollution

Higher crime rates

Impacts on surrounding rural areas

High population density promotes the spread of infectious

diseases.

urban areas inputs and outputs no self sustaining systems
Urban Areas: Inputs and Outputs -no self-sustaining systems-

Inputs

Outputs

Energy

Solid wastes

Waste heat

Food

Air pollutants

Water

Water pollutants

Raw

materials

Greenhouse gases

Manufactured goods

Manufactured

goods

Noise

Money

Wealth

Information

Ideas

urban heat island
Urban Heat Island

92°

33°

Late afternoon temperature (°C)

Late afternoon temperature (°F)

29°

85°

Rural

Suburban

residential

Commercial

Downtown

Urban

residential

Park

Suburban

residential

Rural

farmland

Vegetation “service”: absorb air pollutions, give off oxygen, cool the

air as water transpires, provide shade hence less AC required, reduce

soil erosion, muffles noise, provides wildlife habitat and gives us an

island of peace.

slide16

Urban Water, Pollution & Noise Problems

As cities grow & their water demand increases, expensive reservoirs & canals must be built and deeper wells drilled.

This leads to depletion of surface and ground water & water stress for wildlife, i.e. Colorado River.

Between 50 to 70% of the water is lost or wasted.

Because many cities are build in floodplain flood events are more frequent. Ground sealing asphalt & concrete enhances run offs & quick overload of canalized rivers or drains.

slide17

Urban Water, Pollution & Noise Problems

Most of the largest cities are in coastal areas, hence a raise

in sea level brings additional problems.

Higher air pollution in cities causes respiratory diseases,

asthma etc.

Increased noise levels cause stress, including: high blood

pressure, ulcer, insomnia, increased aggression, hampers

concentrations & work efficiency, causes accidents,

hearing problems.

transportation urban development
Transportation & Urban Development

Drive alone 80%

Other 4%

Public transit 5%

Car pool 11%

Transportation & land-use decisions are liked together &

determine: - where people live

- the distance to work and to go shopping

- how much land is paved over

- amount of air pollution & exposure

Individual transit

cars, scooter, bikes etc.

Mass transit

buses & trains

urban land use planning and control
Urban Land-Use Planning and Control

Land-use planning based on the philosophy that population

growth & economic development should be encouraged,

while neglecting the environment. This is directly linked

to property taxes which is used for schools, police, fire

department, water & sewer systems.

Therefore, local government will encourage economic

growth & developments.

Reelection terms lead to short term (thinking) projects

& problem solving.

Ecological land-use planning urge communities to use

comprehensive, regional ecological land-use to anticipate

a region’s present & future needs & problems.

slide20

Urban Land-Use Planning and Control

Ecological land-use planning:

1. Make an environment & social inventory:

Geologicalfactors (soil type, water availability). Ecological factors (wildlife habitats, pollutions).

Economic factors (housing, transportation, industry).

Health & social factors (disease, crime & poverty).

2. Identify & prioritize goals:

Encourage or discourage economic development

Protect prime habitats, forest, & wetlands.

Reduce soil erosion.

3. Develop data base (individual layers) by using new mapping technology.

4. Develop & implement a master plan.

solutions making urban areas more livable sustainable
Solutions: Making Urban Areas More Livable & Sustainable

New cities and towns i.e. Gainesville, learn from

past mistakes. Cities could be more sustainable, energy

efficient & enjoyable.

Ecocity (green city) emphasis is placed onpreventing

pollution & reduce waste, public transportation, bike paths,

using energy & matter resource, efficient, recycling &

reuse, composting to help create soil, using solar & other

locally available renewable resources, encouraging

biodiversity by providing habitats such as planning native

trees, ponds in the backyard,

This city is People and Nature-oriented & Not car-oriented

environmental worldviews in industrial societies
Environmental Worldviews in Industrial Societies

Environmental worldviews

Individual-centered

Earth-centered

Human-centered

Life-centered

Ecosystem-centered

environmental worldviews
Environmental Worldviews

Environmental

Worldviews

Atomistic

(individual-centered)

Holistic (earth-centered

or ecocentric)

Anthropocentric

(human-centered)

Biocentric

(life-centered)

Biosphere-centered

Individual-

centered

Ecosystem-centered

Species-centered

values
Values

Instrumental (utilitarian) value:

Something has a value because it is useful to us.

Hence, certain things are without a value

Anthropocentric worldview

Intrinsic (inherent) value:

Something has a value because it exist, independently of their use to humans.

Biocentric worldview

planetary management worldview
Planetary Management Worldview

A human-centered environmental worldview where nature has only instrumental values

-Humans are the most important species

-There is always more

-All economic growth is good

-Human success depends on how humans manage things

variations on planetary management
Variations on Planetary Management

No-problem school: there are no environmental or resource problems that cannot be solved by our creativity.

Free-market school: a global free-market with minimal government interference as the problem solver.

Stewardship school: we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible stewards of the earth.

life centered environmental worldviews
Life-Centered Environmental Worldviews

Humans should not cause the premature extinction of species

Actively protect species endangered by human activities

Some believe all species have a right to survive

earth centered environmental worldviews
Earth-Centered Environmental Worldviews

Ecocentric worldview:

We are part of, not apart from the community of life &

the ecological processes that sustain all life.

Emphasis on preserving functioning ecosystems

Humans are part of ecological processes

environmental wisdom worldview
Environmental Wisdom Worldview

Humans are part of nature.

There is not always more, (resources limitation)

Some types of technology and economic growth are good, but discourage harmful ones.

Human success depends on learning how earth systems work and applying what we learn.

Deep ecology: recognize both the intrinsic &

instrumental values of nature.

solutions living sustainably
Solutions: Living Sustainably

Biosphere and ecosystem responsibilities

Species responsibilities

Cultural responsibilities

Individual responsibilities

environmental education
Environmental Education

Where do things I consume come from?

What do I know about the place where I live?

How am I connected to the Earth and other living things?

What are my purpose and responsibility as a human being?