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Urban Transportation Planning. Introduction to Metropolitan Transportation Planning. Definition of Transportation Planning. Transportation planning provides the information, tools, and public involvement needed for improving transportation system performance

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Urban Transportation Planning

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urban transportation planning

Urban Transportation Planning

Introduction to Metropolitan Transportation Planning

definition of transportation planning
Definition of Transportation Planning
  • Transportation planning provides the information, tools, and public involvement needed for improving transportation system performance
  • Transportation planning is a continuous process that requires monitoring of the system’s performance and condition
transportation planning affects
Transportation Planning Affects…
  • Policies
  • Choices among alternative strategies
  • Priorities
  • Funding allocations
more than transportation
More than Transportation
  • Land Use
  • Clean Air Act / Air Quality Standards
  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
  • Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Title VI / Environmental Justice
types of plans
Types of Plans
  • Long-Range
  • Strategic
  • Project/Facility
  • Implementation
  • Improvement (“program”)
  • Comprehensive
  • Site (TIAs)
  • Statewide
legislation safetea lu
Legislation: SAFETEA-LU
  • Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users
  • Plan Requirements
  • Institutional Structures
  • Funding
  • Conformity
metropolitan planning factors i
Metropolitan Planning Factors I
  • (A) Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency
  • (B) Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users
  • (C) Increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users
metropolitan planning factors ii
Metropolitan Planning Factors II
  • (D) Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight
  • (E) Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns
metropolitan planning factors iii
Metropolitan Planning Factors III
  • (F) Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight
  • (G) Promote efficient system management and operation
  • (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system
metropolitan planning organization mpo
Metropolitan Planning OrganizationMPO
  • Has the authority of Federal law (SAFETEA-LU)
  • Is a representative group of local stakeholders
  • Leads the transportation planning process for the metropolitan area
  • Is the region’s policymaking organization responsible for prioritizing transportation initiatives
  • Carries out the urban transportation planning process in cooperation with the State DOT(s) and transit operators
mpo structure
MPO Structure
  • Policy Board (“Planning Commission”)
    • Sets regional long-term transportation policy and approves plans
    • Prioritizes and programs specific transportation initiatives for funding
  • Staff
  • Advisory Committees
  • Examples:
metropolitan planning 3 c s
Metropolitan Planning 3 C’s
  • Comprehensive
  • Cooperative
  • Continuing
scope of work for mpos
Scope of Work for MPOs
  • A Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) or simplified statement of work
  • Public involvement process/plan (PIP)
  • Financial Plan
principal products of mpos
Principal Products of MPOs
  • A Long-Range Transportation Plan
  • Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
  • Special Studies
simplified statement of work large mpos
Simplified Statement of Work (Large MPOs)
  • Planning tasks and studies to be conducted
  • Any transportation-related air quality planning tasks
  • All Federally funded studies
  • State/local planning activities conducted without Federal funds
  • Funding sources identified for each project
  • Schedule of activities
  • Agency responsible for each task or study
public involvement process
Public Involvement Process
  • Proactive
  • Early and continuing
  • Open and collaborative
  • A formal Public Involvement Plan (PIP) is required of Large MPOs (TMAs, Transportation Management Areas)
the long range transportation plan
The Long-Range Transportation Plan
  • Describes vision for the region, and policies, operational strategies, and projects to achieve it
  • Covers at least the next 20 years
  • Leads to an “intermodal” system
  • Reflects public involvement
  • Contains a financial plan and is fiscally constrained
  • Is updated every 4-5 years
transportation improvement program tip
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
  • A staged, multi-year, intermodal program of prioritized transportation initiatives consistent with Plan
  • Shows annual activity for a 3-year period
  • Projects must be in the TIP for FHWA or FTA funding
key issues
Key Issues
  • Air Quality
  • Freight Movement
  • Land Use and Transportation
  • Models and Their Use
  • Performance Measures
  • Project Development and the NEPA Process
  • Public Involvement
  • System Management and Operations (M&O)
  • Title V1/Environmental Justice
  • Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
air quality conformity
Air Quality Conformity
  • Plans must demonstrate consistency with the emissions budgets needed to satisfy the Clean Air Act
  • Projects cannot move forward without conformity
air quality i
Air Quality I
  • Sources
    • Stationary sources
    • Area sources
    • Mobile sources
  • Pollutants (NAAQS)
    • Ozone precursors (VOCs, NOx)
    • Carbon monoxide (CO)
    • Particulates (PM-10 or PM-2.5)
air quality ii
Air Quality II
  • Nonattainment Areas by Pollutant
    • Extreme
    • Severe
    • Serious
    • Moderate
    • Marginal
    • Maintenance
  • Milwaukee is Severe for Ozone
air quality iii
Air Quality III
  • Transportation plans, TIPs, and projects cannot:
    • Create new violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS);
    • Increase the frequency or severity of existing violations of the standards
    • Delay attainment of the standards.
air quality iv
Air Quality IV
  • State Implementation Plan (SIP)
  • Conformity
  • CMAQ
    • Transit improvements, shared-ride services, traffic flow improvements, pedestrian and bicycle programs, construction of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, I/M programs, and transportation demand management strategies
freight i process
Freight I: Process
  • Define system elements that are critical for efficient movement of freight
  • Identify ways to measure system performance in terms of freight movement
  • Develop freight-oriented data collection and modeling
  • Creating a freight movement advisory committee
freight ii policies and projects
Freight II: Policies and Projects
  • Truck Restrictions
    • Peak period bans, freeway section bans, route diversions…
  • Road Design and Construction
    • Improved entry/exit ramps and merges, exclusive truck facilities…
  • Road Pricing
    • Peak period permits and tolls, freeway permits…
  • Fleet Management
    • Voluntary off-peak operations, automatic vehicle location/routing…
  • Traffic Engineering
    • Wider lanes, Speed restrictions, Variable message signs…
  • Shipper/Receiver Actions
    • Voluntary off-peak operations, mandatory off-peak operations…
  • Incident Management
    • Automated detection, site and area surveillance/communications
  • Inspection/Enforcement
    • Automated surveillance…
  • Information Management
    • Highway advisory radio, traffic information…
land use i federal regs
Land Use I: Federal Regs
  • Transportation planning process should consider "the likely effect of transportation policy decisions on land use and development and the consistency of transportation plans and programs with the provisions of all applicable short- and long-term land use and development plans...."
land use ii
Land Use II
  • Transportation/Land Use Interaction
    • Land use creates trips
    • Transportation facilities create land use
  • Smart Growthand Economic Development
  • Models
travel forecasting models
Travel Forecasting Models
  • A travel forecasting model is the major analysis tool for evaluating urban transportation plans and conducting conformity analysis
travel models four steps
Travel Models: Four Steps?
  • (Activity Allocation)
  • Trip Generation
  • Trip Distribution
  • Mode Split
  • Traffic Assignment
  • (Measures of Effectiveness)
  • (Impact Models)
performance measures i
Performance Measures I
  • Accessibility
    • Percent population within "x" minutes of "y" percent of employment sites
    • Access by elderly
    • Quality of ADA compliance
  • Mobility
    • Average travel time
    • Change in average travel time
    • Average trip length
    • Percentage of trips per mode
    • Time lost to congestion
    • Percent on-time transit performance
performance measures ii
Performance Measures II
  • Economic development
    • Jobs created
    • New housing starts
    • Percent of region's unemployed who cite lack of transportation as principal barrier
    • Economic cost of congestion
  • Environmental quality of life
    • Environmental and resource consumption
    • Tons of pollution generated
    • Fuel consumption
performance measures iii
Performance Measures III
  • Sprawl
    • Change in difference between urban and suburban household densities; decrease in wetlands; changes in air quality, land use, or mobility.
  • Safety
    • Number of crash incidents or economic costs of crashes
national environmental policy act of 1969 nepa
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
  • It is the policy of the US government to protect the environment
  • Environmental Impact Statements
    • Environmental Assessments (FONSI)
    • Categorical Exclusions
  • Council on Environmental Quality
public involvement
Public Involvement
  • Early and continuous involvement
  • Reasonable public availability of technical and other information
  • Collaborative input on alternatives, evaluation criteria, and mitigation needs
  • Open public meetings where matters related to transportation policies, programs, and projects are being considered
  • Open access to the decision making process prior to closure
transportation system management
Transportation System Management
  • Metropolitan traffic management centers
  • Traffic signal coordination
  • Incident management programs
  • Preferential treatment for transit/rideshares
  • Special event traffic management
  • Emergency management strategies
  • Pricing of transportation services
  • ITS applications for transit
  • Traveler Information
environmental justice
Environmental Justice
  • Avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental, social or economic effects on minority and low-income populations
  • Ensuring the full and fair participation in the transportation decision making process by all potentially affected communities
  • Preventing the denial of, reduction in, or significant delay in the receipt of benefits by minority and low-income populations
discussion milwaukee environmental justice
Discussion: Milwaukee Environmental Justice
  • Are these strategies environmentally just?
    • Locating Miller Park at old County Stadium site
    • Widening all Milwaukee freeways by 1 lane
    • Eliminating the park-n-ride lot a Bayshore Mall
transportation demand management
Transportation Demand Management
  • Offering commuters alternative transportation modes and/or services
  • Providing incentives to travel on these modes or at non-congested hours
  • Providing opportunities to link or "chain" trips together
  • Incorporating growth management or traffic impact policies into local development decisions
  • See www.vtpi.org
transportation decision making
Transportation Decision Making
  • Vision
    • What do you want your transportation system to be in 20 years?
    • Coordinate with land use vision
    • Identify current strengths and weaknesses
    • Identify opportunities and threats
vision metropolitan washington dc
Vision Metropolitan Washington DC
  • In the 21st Century, the Washington metropolitan region remains a vibrant world capital, with a transportation system that provides efficient movement of people and goods. This system promotes the region's economy and environmental quality, and operates in an attractive and safe setting--it is a system that serves everyone. The system is fiscally sustainable, promotes areas of concentrated growth, manages both demand and capacity, employs the best technology, and joins rail, roadway, bus, air, water, pedestrian and bicycle facilities into a fully interconnected network.
goals and objectives






“Improve transportation safety”







“Reduce the number of traffic conflict points”

Goals and Objectives
criteria and standards

Specific numerical expression of an objective

“Number of conflict points”


Desired level of achievement through plan implementation

“10% reduction in conflict points”

Criteria and Standards
operational strategies
Operational Strategies
  • The “how”
  • Linked to objectives
  • “Identify intersections with poor crash experience; introduce channelization, better signalization and coordination.”

“The one thing we need to do to solve our transportation problems is to stop thinking that there is one thing we can do to solve our transportation problems.”

-Robert Liberty, Executive Director, 1000 Friends of Oregon

example ann arbor goals
Example: Ann Arbor Goals
  • 1. Provide appropriate access and mobility, with minimal negative impacts, for all people and goods
  • 2. Protect and enhance the natural environment and the human, residential and built environment.
  • 3. Promote a safe and secure transportation system.
  • 4. Invest in transportation infrastructure in a manner consistent with other goals.
example ann arbor objectives i
Example: Ann Arbor Objectives I
  • First Goal: Provide appropriate access and mobility, with minimal negative impacts, for all people and goods.
    • Objective A: Minimize vehicle miles and vehicle hours spent traveling.
    • Objective B: Increase the occupancy rate for motorized modes.
    • Objective C: Reduce barriers to the use of the transportation system, especially its non-motorized components by facilitating pedestrian and bicycle access on public rights-of-way.
    • Objective D: Improve bicycle access on public roads.
example ann arbor objectives ii
Example: Ann Arbor Objectives II
  • Objective E: Increase the number of bus centers and commuter lots and improve their distribution and efficiency throughout the SEMCOG region.
  • Objective F: Increase the contiguity among public transportation services and non-motorized transportation modes.
  • Objective G: Implement travel demand management plans to reduce commuter traffic and congestion.
  • Objective H: Increase mode choices and their coordination for the movement of goods and people.
  • Objective I: Encourage the development of commuter rail services, particularly the Detroit/Ann Arbor/Lansing proposal, on the Norfolk Southern and Ann Arbor Railroads.
inventory and data
Inventory and Data
  • Role of GIS
  • See Course Reader for an long list of items for an inventory
alternatives scenarios
  • Alternative
    • A unified set of projects, policies and operational strategies that will meet the community's goals and achieve the vision
  • Scenario
    • A future state of the urban area, independent of any alternatives
    • Futures forecasting/Delphi
  • In what year will the following happen?
    • Gasoline prices reach $5 per gallon
    • Nuclear fusion becomes commercially viable for electric power generation
    • First mag lev system in the US in commercial service
additional reading
Additional Reading
  • Edward Weiner, “Urban Transportation Planning In the United States: An Historical Overview: Fifth Edition”, 1997, http://tmip.fhwa.dot.gov/clearinghouse/docs/utp/