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Urban Growth and Transportation. “ The paved paradise and put up a parking lot. They took all the trees and put them in tree museum. And they charged all the people a dollar and a half just to see them.” Joni Mitchell. Urban Growth and Transportation.

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slide2

“The paved paradise and put up a parking lot.

They took all the trees and put them in tree

museum. And they charged all the people a

dollar and a half just to see them.”

Joni Mitchell

urban growth and transportation3
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Lateral Growth Patterns
    • Vertical Growth Patterns
urban growth and transportation4
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Lateral Growth Patterns
      • Concentric-Circle Model
      • Sector Model
      • Multiple-Nuclei Model
urban growth and transportation5
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Lateral Growth Patterns
      • Concentric-Circle Model
        • Growth outward from Central Business District (CBD)
        • New York City
urban growth and transportation7
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Lateral Growth Patterns
      • Sector Model
        • City develops in system of pie-shaped wedges outward from CBD
        • San Francisco-San Jose
urban growth and transportation9
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Lateral Growth Patterns
      • Multiple-Nuclei Model
        • City develops around number of independent centers or satellite cities
        • Los Angeles
urban growth and transportation11
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Vertical Growth
      • Lack of land available for conversion to urban land
      • City grows upward
      • High population density
      • Hong Kong; Tokyo
urban growth and transportation12
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Building New Cities and Towns
      • Satellite towns
        • Located close to an existing large city
      • Freestanding new towns
        • Located far from any major city
      • In-town new towns
        • Located in existing urban areas
urban growth and transportation13
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Spatial Patterns of Urban Development
    • Building New Cities and Towns
      • Rarely succeed without enormous financial support
      • Most fail due to enormous debt load
        • Reston, VA
        • Columbia, MD
        • Las Colinas, TX
urban growth and transportation14
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas
    • Environmental Impacts
      • Strain on rural infrastructure
        • Traffic congestion
        • Fire and police protection
        • Water supplies
        • Wastewater treatment
        • Crime
urban growth and transportation15
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas
    • Environmental Impacts
      • Strain on rural infrastructure
        • Schools
        • Noise
        • Water and air pollution
urban growth and transportation16
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas
    • Economic Impacts
      • Increased jobs
      • Economic growth
      • Rising prices
      • Higher property taxes
urban growth and transportation17
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Transportation Options
      • Individual Transit
        • Automobiles
        • Motor Cycles
        • Bicycles
      • Mass Transit
        • Bus
        • Rail
urban growth and transportation20
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Motor Vehicles
      • 550 million vehicles worldwide
      • >10X increase in vehicles since 1950
      • 89% vehicles are in MDCs
urban growth and transportation21
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Motor Vehicles
      • United States
        • 4.8% world population
        • 36% of all cars in world
        • Car usage:
          • 98% of all urban transportation
          • 85% of all travel between cities
          • 84% of all travel to and from work
urban growth and transportation22
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Motor Vehicles
      • U.S. Interstate Highway System
        • Highways
          • City-to-city travel
          • Spurred rapid growth of suburbs
urban growth and transportation23
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Motor Vehicles
      • Freeways/Beltways
        • Bypass cities
        • Spurred suburb-to-suburb travel
        • Spurred growth of shopping malls
urban growth and transportation24
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • U.S. Trends in Mass Transit
        • 1945: 24 million riders
        • 1980: 8 million
urban growth and transportation25
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Reasons for decreased ridership
        • Increased use of automobile
        • Development of dispersed city
        • Cheap gasoline
        • Affordable cars
        • Gasoline taxes used to build highways
urban growth and transportation26
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Reasons for decreased ridership
        • Dismantlement of trolley system
          • 1917 - all major U.S. cities had efficient trolleys or electric streetcars
          • 1950 - dismantling of privately-owned streetcars by National City Lines (GM, Firestone, Standard Oil)
urban growth and transportation27
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Reasons for decreased ridership
        • Huge federal investment in interstate highway system
          • 64,000 miles of interstate highway
          • 1/10th of federal gasoline tax goes to mass transit; 9/10 goes to building highways
urban growth and transportation28
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Reasons for decreased ridership
        • Federal tax code discriminates against mass transit and those who cycle/walk to work
        • Employers can deduct the entire expense of providing parking for their workers
        • Employers get only ~$15 per month tax write-off for employees who take mass transit
        • Tax benefits for company cars
urban growth and transportation29
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Rail Systems
        • Rapid Rail
          • Operate on exclusive rights-of-ways or on elevated tracks (CTA)
        • Suburban/Regional Trains
          • Connect central cities with suburbs (Metra)
urban growth and transportation31
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Rail Systems
        • Streetcars
          • Move on regular streets with other traffic
        • Light Rail (trolleys)
          • Modern version of streetcars
urban growth and transportation32
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Buses
        • Cheaper and more flexible than rail systems
        • Can be easily rerouted within cities to meet changing transportation patterns
        • Lower operating costs than rail systems
        • Most energy-efficient approach is use of express buses coupled with park-and-ride
urban growth and transportation33
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Bicycles
        • Worldwide: 2X as many bikes as cars
        • Bike riders can make most trips under 5 miles faster than a car!
        • Trips < 5 miles comprise 43% of all trips in the U.S.
urban growth and transportation34
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Bicycles
        • U.S. - 2% of all commuters to and from work ride bikes
        • Netherlands - 30% of all urban trips are made using bikes
urban growth and transportation35
Urban Growth and Transportation
  • Transportation and Urban Development
    • Mass Transit
      • Bicycles
        • Ways to increase bicycle use
          • Building well-maintained/well-lit paths
          • Widening shoulders on major highways
          • Providing bicycle lockers and racks on mass transit
          • Establishing bike-carrying buses