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The New World Order & the Cold War

The New World Order & the Cold War. EQ: How did circumstances in Europe lead to a competition for power and the Cold War?. Beginnings of the United Nations. Built from what started as the Atlantic charter. Idea first proposed by Roosevelt at Tehran Conference in 1943. August – October 1944

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The New World Order & the Cold War

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  1. The New World Order & the Cold War EQ: How did circumstances in Europe lead to a competition for power and the Cold War?

  2. Beginnings of the United Nations • Built from what started as the Atlantic charter. • Idea first proposed by Roosevelt at Tehran Conference in 1943. • August – October 1944 • Representatives from France, China, Britain, U.S., and Soviet Union meet to outline purpose of the United Nations

  3. Purpose of the United Nations • Maintain international peace and security • Maintain economic and social cooperation • Intended to either prevent wars, or make wars obsolete.

  4. The Founding of the U.N. • First meeting occurs on April 25, 1945 in San Francisco to discuss organization. • 50 nations send representatives • U.N. Charter signed on June 26. • Charter officially ratified on October 24th.

  5. Organization of the U.N. • Permanent Security Council of five countries • U.S., U.K., France, China, Soviet Union • Headquartered in New York City at U.N. building. • Non-governmental organizations created in charge of everything from human rights to peacekeeping

  6. Major Conferences The Big Three: • Leaders of United States,Britain & U.S.S.R. • FDR/Truman, Churchill, &Stalin War Strategies &Post-War Plans: • Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) • Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945): • Agreed on the occupation of Germany

  7. Axis Powers violated the 3rd Geneva Convention (1929), which was: • An agreement governing the treatment of soldiers & POWs • Axis Powers mistreated POWs in China, SE Asia Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946): • Trials against the Nazis for war crimes • Many executed or given long prison terms

  8. The Trial of Adolf Eichmann Trial: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5ojhOzqNNU Verdict: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gvennk9Oyw4

  9. Effects of WWII • Germany • Divided, communist inthe east, democratic inthe west • Japan • Occupied by US, governed by MacArthur • Eastern Europe • Communist, under Stalin’s control

  10. Post-War Superpowers: • The US & the Soviet Union • Both played decisive roles in defeated the Axis powers Of the two, whom was strongest, and why? • Arguably the US; booming economy after war, no major battle fought on US soil (except Pearl Harbor)

  11. Division of Germany • After WWII Germany divided into democratic West Germany and Communist East Germany. • Berlin located in East Germany. • Divided into Allied zone, and Soviet zone. • Berlin becomes last place for emigration to the West.

  12. The Marshall Plan • Created by Secretary of State, George C. Marshall in 1947 • Purpose of the plan • Rebuild Europe • Strengthen U.S. allies • Prevent the spread of Communism

  13. War Damage in Europe • Many of Europe’s largest cities completely destroyed by bombs. • Millions of people classified as “displaced persons.” • People without homes, or driven from their homes.

  14. The Plan • Communism only successful in countries with economic problems. • Plan provides $13 billion to European countries. • Soviet Union, and countries of Eastern Europe refuse to participate. • Soviets believe Marshall Plan is an attempt to buy support from Europe. • 1947 – Split between Soviets and U.S. • U.S. adopts policy of containment • Keep communism in current borders, don’t allow it to spread.

  15. A map showing how the plan’s $20B was distributed by country

  16. MacArthur’s Plan for Japan • MacArthur placed in charge of Japanese occupation in 1945. • First priority is to establish food distribution network. • Seeks approval of Emperor Hirohito in order to win approval of Japanese people

  17. The Occupation • Japan Disarmed • Only allowed a “self-defense force.” • Liberal land policies introduced • Land taken from wealthy land owners, sold to peasants. • Democratization • Democratic government introduced. • Emperor removed from politics. • Purging of war criminals • Many Japanese generals and officials arrested and put on trial for war crimes.

  18. Origins of the Cold War • Yalta conference gave FDR confidence he could work with Stalin for a new peace • “I would minimize the general Soviet problem as much as possible because these problems, in one form or another, seem to arise every day and most of them straighten out.” –FDR’s last cable to Churchill • FDR dies, Truman becomes president

  19. The Postwar Balance of Power Source: Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers.

  20. Origins of the Cold War • Truman is unversed in foreign policy • Truman allows anti-Soviet hard-liners to dictate policy; moderates and old FDR advisors are cut out • Truman also delivers hard diplomacy (and uncompromising demands ) to Stalin; Stalin, being paranoid and defensive, starts to change tone with US

  21. The Iron Curtain Winston Churchill gave the Iron Curtain speech in 1946 Map of the Iron Curtain

  22. USSR Expansion1945-1947 • Problems arise First in Eastern Europe: The Yalta Conference • Soviets Want Sphere of Influence in Eastern Europe. • U.S. Wants Independent Democratic Governments in the Region • Soviets Have Military Advantage; Install Pro-Soviet Governments Throughout Region Between 1946-49

  23. Origins of the Cold War • Churchill speech repositions Britain /US and USSR into adversarial roles • After speech, relations deteriorate • Soviet troops during WWII occupied Iran. The US, seeing Iran as having a lot of oil, starts to make threats that the USSR must leave the area or “We’re going to drop it on you” (US ambassador to USSR rep)-1946 • Soviets withdraw, now policymakers believe aggressive force can work on Soviets.

  24. The Truman Doctrine 1947 President Truman outlined the Truman Doctrine to a joint session of Congress in March of 1947

  25. From Allies to Enemies “If we see that Germany is winning the war we ought to help Russia, and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany and in that way let them kill as many as possible.” Harry S. Truman, 1941

  26. The Cold War begins • Truman doctrine gave aid to Turkey and Greece in the hopes that this funding would keep their governments from falling into communism (policy criticized by most moderates at the time (Wallace, Marshall, etc.) • Truman accepts a policy of containment: Communism must not spread else it might start the domino effect • Containment theory originated with George Kennan (Soviet expert who quickly regretted his words and how they justified military expansion) • Ironically, the Soviets were looking for insulation from the Capitalist West. • Domino effect: One country falls to communism, more are to follow • COLD WAR BEGINS!

  27. The Cold War • The Cold War: The struggle between the US and the Soviet Union for influence, military might, and political/economic control over the world. (1947-1991) • Cold War was largely fought between proxies; never directly militarily • Cold War will define the 2nd half of the 20th century

  28. The Conflict Intensifies1947-1949 The United States • Truman Doctrine and Containment, March 12, 1947. • Aid To Greece and Turkey • Broader Strategic Agenda • The Marshall Plan, June 5, 1947. • Foreign Aid to European Countries to Assist Reconstruction and Prevent Communist Victories. • Marks the Beginning of the Partition of Europe. The Soviet Union Responds • The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949. • Soviets Explode Atomic Bomb in 1949.

  29. The United States Responds • NSC-68 and The Militarization of the US-Soviet Conflict. • Ordered by Truman in Early 1950 in Response to Soviet A-Bomb. • Evaluate Nature of Soviet Threat and US Policy Toward the Soviet Union. NSC-68 Concludes That: • USSR is Inherently Expansionist • Expansion Fuelled by Messianic Faith that was Antithetical to American Way of Life. • Containment would Require Global Offensive Against Soviet Bloc. • Advocated Substantial U.S. Rearmament

  30. NSC-68 • The Containment Doctrine would later be expanded in 1949 in NSC-68, which called for a dramatic increase in defense spending • From $13 billion to $50 billion a year, to be paid for with a large tax increase. • NSC-68 served as the framework for American policy over the next 20 years.

  31. Impact of NSC-68 Immediate increase in defense spending FY 1950: Defense budget $14.1 billion 33% of national budget, 5% 0f GNP FY 1951: Defense budget $33.6 billion 73% of national budget, 10% 0f GNP Demonstrated American commitment to win the Cold War Source

  32. Berlin Blockade and Airlift June 1948 - May 1949

  33. What Caused the Blockade? • Europe was not recovering from the war as quickly as hoped • The United States came up with the idea of combining the three western zones into “Trizonia” to help Germany recover • The Soviet Union, opposed Germany unity and imposed a short, possible test, blockade in April 1948, preventing supplies from reaching Berlin

  34. Factors Causing the Blockade • Marshall Plan • Union of Western German (Bizonia) states creating its own currency • Eastern European countries would buy Western Germany currency which devalues the Eastern European currency • Differing aims for Germany • Russia wants it to crumble • US/ BR want to rebuild its economy Therefore, Russia blocks off surface routes from Western Germany to West Berlin

  35. Federal Republic of Germany Berlin Blockade 1948- 49

  36. General Lucius Clay • Called for armed convoys to push through the blockade • Plan was never implemented • American ground forces in Europe were not strong enough to defeat the USSR

  37. Berlin Airlift • US decides not to start a war and decides to send supplies to West Berlin by air (British proposal) • Shows the resolve of the US to keep West Berlin C-47: Used to carry supplies (3.5 tons each)

  38. “Little Lift” • Using the C-47s in April 1948 (102 C-47s available) • Gatow and Tempelhof used as landing strips • Back in November 30, 1945, it was agreed in writing, that there would be three 20-mile wide air corridors providing access to the city

  39. "Operation Vittles” "Operation Plane Fare" • 3,475 tons of supplies were needed daily to keep the over 2 million people alive 3475 ÷ 3.5 (capacity of C-47) = approximately 1000 flights/day needed!!! • Coal was the largest necessity (industries) • Later in June, C-54’s were used (10tons) – faster too • Spacing of 3 minutes, both types of planes were used

  40. Airlift Facts • The blockade lasted 318 days (11 months) • In the winter of 1948–49 Berliners lived on dried potatoes, powdered eggs and cans of meat • 4 hours of electricity/day • 275,000 flights carried over 1½ million tons of supplies (2.3 million with Britain) • On 16 April 1949, 1400 flights brought in 13,000 tons of supplies in one day • Some pilots dropped chocolate and sweets

  41. Significance • May 1949 Soviets end the blockade • They did not want war either • Airlift continues for a few more months to stock Berlin in case of another blockade • 2.5 million West Berliners saved without violence • US would see the importance of air transport and increases production of transport planes • Template for Cold War conflicts – push to the point of war but drawing back just before (“Brinkmanship”) • Leads to the creation of NATO

  42. NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Formed in response to Berlin Crisis and to forge a new Western alliance

  43. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Truman Doctrine = political warning • Marshal Plan = economic resistance • NATO = military alliance • US, Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Italy, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg

  44. Significance • Organized defence of the West • European-American cooperation – total end of isolationism • First American peace time military alliance • Soviets will respond with the Warsaw Pact in 1955

  45. NATO Treaty, 1949. Warsaw Pact, 1955.

  46. President Truman Expands fed govt size and power Executive Order 9835 • Barred members of the Communist Party from federal employment. • Fascists too • States started to do this too • Loyalty oaths

  47. Senator Joseph McCarthy • Wisconsin Republican facing defeat in election of 1950 • Turns to a platform of anti-Communism

  48. The List • “I have here a list of 205 names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”

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