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Lesson 22 Cold War: Berlin & Korea PowerPoint Presentation
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Lesson 22 Cold War: Berlin & Korea

Lesson 22 Cold War: Berlin & Korea

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Lesson 22 Cold War: Berlin & Korea

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  1. Lesson 22 Cold War: Berlin & Korea

  2. Veterans’ Day – November 11th If you can read this, thank a teacher If you are reading this in English, thank a veteran

  3. Lesson Objectives • Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold War. • Understand the strategy of containment and become familiar with the conflicts and confrontations that resulted. • Begin to understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold War. • Understand the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Berlin Airlift. • Understand the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Korean War.

  4. What was the Cold War?

  5. The Cold War Cold War: Abipolar world, stabilized by a nuclear balance between two superpowers "The post-post Cold War" Thomas Friedman New York Times, May 10, 2006

  6. The Cold War Class Definition between A prolonged armed confrontation   Totalitarian Socialism Communism East   Democracy Free Market Capitalism West characterized by intense competition: Economic Military Diplomatic Scientific Cultural with local wars fought by proxies

  7. When did the Cold War begin?

  8. WW II End Game Western Europe

  9. WW II End Game Southern Europe

  10. WW II End Game Eastern Europe

  11. WW II End Game February 1945 • Soviet army poised to begin push to Berlin • 12 million men • 4 million Allies still west of Rhine River

  12. Cold War Timeline Tehran Conference 28 Nov - 1 Dec 43 First Face-to-Face Meeting of the Big Three

  13. Tehran Conference November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943 US, Britain agree to open Second Front May 1944 Stalin insists on territory from Poland Allies agree to coordinate activities

  14. Cold War Timeline Tehran Conference 28 Nov - 1 Dec 43 4-11 Feb 45 Yalta Conference

  15. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945

  16. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 The Big Three

  17. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Each leader had their priorities: Roosevelt: Gain Soviet assistance in war with Japan Obtain Soviet participation in United Nations Churchill: Restore democratic institutions to Eastern Europe Stalin: Extend sphere of influence to Eastern Europe as buffer

  18. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Results: Defined the post-war world • Pursue unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany • Germany to be divided into four occupation zones • Berlin to be subject to four-power occupation • Germany to be demilitarized and purged of Nazis • Reparations to USSR (forced labor & industrial capacity) • Recognition of provisional government and elections in Poland • Poland would cede territory to USSR but gain from Germany • USSR would join UN provided it had veto in Security Council • USSR to declare war on Japan within 90 days of German defeat

  19. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Newsreel

  20. Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Concerns: • Soviets would take Berlin • Four Power Partition of Germany, Berlin • Soviets would get parts of Poland • Soviets would receive Japanese territory • Korea divided at 38th parallel Considered by many the beginning of the Cold War

  21. Cold War Timeline Yalta Conference 4-11 Feb 45 FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman 12 Apr 45

  22. Transitions President Franklin D. Roosevelt Died at Warm Springs, Georgia April 12, 1945

  23. Transitions Harry S. Truman Assumed presidency April 12, 1945

  24. Cold War Timeline Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman 4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45 8 May 45 VE Day Potsdam Conference 17 Jul - 2 Aug 45

  25. Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945 Potsdam: Berlin suburb Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration of Germany and other issues involving transition from war to peace

  26. Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945 Cecillenhof Palace, Potsdam Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration of Germany and other issues involving transition from war to peace President Truman presided as the only head of state

  27. Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945 Big Three early in Potsdam Conference

  28. Transitions Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill Conservative Party voted out of office July 27, 1945 Clement Attlee Prime Minister, July 1945 - October 1951

  29. Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945 Big Three late in Potsdam Conference

  30. Potsdam Agreement August 1, 1945 Key Points: Political: Democratization, Disarmament, Demilitarization, Elimination of all Nazi influence. Economic: Destruction of all war-making industry Focus of economy to be agriculture and light industry Reparations to USSR from Soviet zone plus 10% of industrial capability from Western zone Dispersal of German navy and merchant marine War crimes: Established mechanism for Nuremberg Trials Provisions for governments of Austria and Poland Provisions for peace treaties and admission to United Nations Transfer of populations Source: PBS

  31. German Zones of Occupation

  32. Potsdam Conference Truman tells Stalin about A-bomb July 24, 1945 Comment on back of photograph: “In which I tell Stalin we expect to drop the most powerful explosive ever on the Japanese. He smiled and said he appreciated my telling him but he did not know what I was talking - about - the Atomic Bomb! HST” Department of Energy Source

  33. Potsdam Declaration July 25, 1945 Key Points: Resolution of Pacific War Militarism must end in Japan Japanese Army to be disarmed Democracy to be established Industry to be allowed but no capability to rearm Territory taken from China to be returned Korea to become a free and independent nation War criminals to be punished Japan to be occupied until these provisions are complied with "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.”

  34. Roots of the Cold War The Three Conferences Tehran Conference November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943 First meeting of “Big 3” Allies agree to coordinate war activities Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945 Defined post-war world Defined post-war world Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945 Discussed issues in transition from war to peace

  35. Cold War Timeline Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman VE Day Potsdam Conference 4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45 8 May 45 17 Jul - 2 Aug 45 6, 9 Aug 45 8 Aug 45 15 Aug 45 Atomic bombings of Japan USSR declares war on Japan VJ Day Communist regime declared in Albania 11 Jan 46 22 Feb 46 George Kennan “Long Telegram” from Moscow

  36. “The Long Telegram” February 22, 1946 from Moscow Deputy Chief of US Mission in Moscow Was responding to US Treasury inquiry • Why is USSR not supporting world monetary system? George F. Keenan His response is hailed as the defining document of Cold War • Characterized Soviet mindset and coming confrontation with West Document served as foundation for Containment Policy Text of Message Wikisource

  37. “The Long Telegram” February 22, 1946 from Moscow Highlights: • The USSR perceived itself at perpetual war with capitalism; • Socialism and social democracy are enemies, not allies; • USSR would use Marxists in the capitalist world as allies; • Soviet aggression aligned with historic Russian xenophobia and paranoia; • Soviet system prohibited objective view of reality. Soviet power impervious to logic of reason, but highly sensitive to logic of force. Roots of Containment

  38. Cold War Timeline Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman VE Day Potsdam Conference Atomic bombings of Japan USSR declares war on Japan VJ Day Communist regime declared in Albania George Kennan “Long Telegram” from Moscow 4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45 8 May 45 17 Jul - 2 Aug 45 6, 9 Aug 45 8 Aug 45 15 Aug 45 11 Jan 46 22 Feb 46 Civil war erupts in Greece - Communists vs. conservatives Mar 46

  39. “Iron Curtain” March 5, 1946 Winston Churchill Westminster College, Fulton, MO “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘iron curtain’ has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Alt:  (0:51)

  40. Cold War Timeline Churchill “Iron Curtain” speech Bulgaria deposes king, establishes People’s Republic Referendum in Poland brings Communist government Truman Doctrine announced 5 Mar 46 8 Sep 46 19 Jan 47 12 Mar 47

  41. Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 US foreign policy designed to stop spread of Communism Pledged to provide economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey US foreign policy transitioned from détent to containment Some sources cite this as the beginning of the Cold War Alt:  (2:30)

  42. George C. Marshall Soldier - Statesman • Graduate of VMI (1901) • Army Chief of Staff (1939) • Time Man of the Year (1943) 1880-1959

  43. George C. Marshall Soldier - Statesman • Graduate of VMI (1901) • Army Chief of Staff (1939) • Time Man of the Year (1943) • General of the Army (5 stars - 1944) • Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945) • Secretary of State (1947 - 1949) 1880-1959 … the “true architect of victory” in Western Europe … Winston Churchill

  44. Marshall Plan April 3, 1948 Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 (Also referred to as the Economic Cooperation Act and the European Recovery Act) • Grew from realization that slow recovery from war devastation in Western Europe would leave the region weak and subject to Communist incursion • US leadership did not want a repeat of post- World War One conditions that contributed to the Great Depression and rise of Fascism. • Marshall publicly presented idea in Harvard commencement address (June 5, 1947) • Provided $12 B in recovery aid (Value in 2005 $: $555 B per GDP share) • Major factor in Western European resistance to Communism

  45. George C. Marshall Soldier - Statesman • Graduate of VMI (1901) • Army Chief of Staff (1939) • Time Man of the Year (1943) • General of the Army (5 stars - 1944) • Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945) • Secretary of State (1947 - 1949) • Secretary of Defense (1950 - 1951) 1880-1959 • Nobel Peace Prize (1953)

  46. Cold War Timeline Churchill “Iron Curtain” speech Bulgaria deposes king, establishes People’s Republic Referendum in Poland brings Communist government Truman Doctrine announced 5 Mar 46 8 Sep 46 19 Jan 47 12 Mar 47 5 Jun 47 25 Feb 48 3 Apr 48 10 May 48 24 Jun 48 Sec State George Marshall outlines European aid plan Communist Party takes control of Czechoslovakia Truman signs Foreign Assistance Act (Marshall Plan) Republic of Korea proclaimed, Syngman Rhee president Stalin orders blockade of Berlin; allies respond with airlift

  47. Berlin

  48. Berlin

  49. Berlin Blockade Soviets wanted Western Allies out of Berlin June 24, 1948: Blocked all ground access to Berlin Ground access rights never formally guaranteed

  50. Berlin Airlift June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949 Western response: supply city by air Air corridors guaranteed by Four Power agreement on Berlin First significant confrontation of the Cold War