The EarlyCold War:1945-1970 Mr. Meyer Mr. Wolf
The Cold War: • Foundations and Assumptions (1945-1955)
“Americans must accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to assert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such means we see fit.” • Henry Luce (1941)Founder / Publisher of Fortune and Time Magazines
Essential Questions • What does the term “Cold War” Mean? • How did the legacies of WWII build the foundation? • Outcomes of Cold War – Impact on the United States • What caused the Cold War? • What was the Ideology of Containment? How did the USSR respond? • What were the U.S.’s Policies?
Two Interpretations of Cold War • The Cold War Was Not Inevitable • Political and Military Reality • Misunderstandings Between Policy Makers of U.S. and USSR • The Cold War Represents a Paradox • Conformity to “True American Values” • Economic Prosperity and Socio Economic Mobility of Middle- and Working Class Americans
The Cold War • What is a “cold” war? How is it different from a “hot” war Timeline • Phase One – 1945 – 1950 – Most Dangerous • Phase Two – 1950 – 1970s – 007 • Phase Three – 1970s – 1989 - Detente
Legacies of WWII The United States • Economics • Death and Destruction – 500,000 • Status in World Europe – The Human Factor • Germany – 6.8 million • Soviet Union – 20.6 million Asia • Japan – Occupied • China – Revolution • French Indochina (Vietnam) – Nationalism and War for Independence
Consequences of Legacies: Shift in Power Structure Western European Nations – Loss of Power • Impact of War • Neo-colonialism – loss of “colonies” Two Super Powers • The United States – Democracy • The Soviet Union - Communism
Essential Questions3.5.09 • What are two origins of the Cold War? • What are three things that George Kennan identified about the USSR? • Did we ever invade Russia • How is communism different then capitalism?
Origins of Cold War • Red Scare of 1920’s • German Industry – rebuild Russia with our $$ • Control Europe? • Wilson’s “making world safe for democracy” • Satellite states • Manhattan Project – USSR against WOMD • Karl Marx – next transition of economy
Karl Marx – The CommunistManifesto 10 Planks of the Communist Manifesto • Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. • A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. • Abolition of all right of inheritance. • Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels. • Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. • Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State. • Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. • Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture. • Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equal distribution of the population over the country. • Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, &c.
Players in Cold War:Two views United States • Political Perspective: Democracy • Fear: Ghost of Depression Past and Depression Future • Need: Free Markets for Trade – Global Economy The Soviet Union • Political Perspective: Communism • Fear: National Security – Future Invasions • Need: “Buffer Zone” – Eastern Europe and Weak Germany
Ideology: Policy of “Containment” • What is Containment? Underlying Assumptions: • The Soviet Union Planned to Expand Its Influence • Impact on US: • Notion of Democracy and Self Determination of Nations • Economic Impact – Rob US of its Global Markets George Kennan • Concept of Containment • Recommendations: Economic & Education
What did George Kennan Find? • The history of Russia has been one of hostile neighbors and a constant fear of attack; it's inevitable that Russia will try to take over its neighbor states to provide a buffer zone. • The United States has a duty to confront Soviet aggression with "unalterable counterforce.“ • The United States must maintain a policy of long-term containment of Soviet aggression.
Outcomes for United States • Economic Prosperity • Conformity & Consensus At Home • The American “Empire” • Social & Reform Darwinism • Spread Democracy and Capitalism • Vietnam – Case Study
Outcomes cont: The Tentacles of Communism Domestic Anticommunism: Fear of Subversive Ideas Response: • “McCarthyism” • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) American Society – Conformity • Women • Racial Ethnic Groups • Members of Labor Unions • Educators and Journalists • Left-leaning liberals, socialists, members of the American communist party
Essential Questions3.6.09 • What was the Truman Doctrine and how did it impact the Cold War • How was the Marshall Plan going to help stop communism from spreading in Europe? • Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War?
Essential Questions3.9.09 • Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War? • What was NSC 68, what event caused it come about, and why was it so significant to our future with the USSR? • Explain the causes and significance of the Korean War.
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan] • METHODOLOGIES: • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] • Arms Race [nuclear escalation] • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Focus on Berlin, 1945 • After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. • Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
A peek under the Iron Curtain March 6th 1946
Truman Doctrine  • Civil War in Greece-communists vs. freedom fighters • Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. • “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.” • The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  • “European Recovery Program.” • Secretary of State, George Marshall • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
Partition of Germany • U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital to recovery of Europe • 1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones • Federal Republic of Germany – led by Konrad Adenauer • 1949, East Germany formally established – Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht (1883-1973); communist regime influenced by Moscow
In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
A huge airlift: · President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin. · At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
A huge airlift cont… Images of soldiers loading planes and a German girl. Blockade ended in 1949 with Stalin giving in, but keeps Germany separate
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) • United States • Belgium • Britain • Canada • Denmark • France • Iceland • Italy • Luxemburg • Netherlands • Norway • Portugal • 1952: Greece & Turkey • 1955: West Germany • 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) • U. S. S. R. • Albania • Bulgaria • Czechoslovakia • East Germany • Hungary • Poland • Rumania
The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Change in Policy • In response to the explosion of a Soviet Atomic bomb, which changed everything, the US came up with National Security Council Paper 68 (NSC-68) • Written by Paul Nitze and Policy Planning Staff • Initialed by Truman in April 1950
Assumptions of NSC 68 • With destruction of German and Japanese power and the decline of Britain and France, world power was being contested for only by US and USSR • Soviets’ top priority was establish absolute power over their homeland and Eastern Europe and they were being driven by communism, a “new fanatic faith” that “seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world” • Conflict between the two superpowers was endemic and due to growing number of weapons of mass destruction, every individual faces the threat of annihilation • Since Soviets relied on military power to get their way, they could therefore be checked by US military power • If this military power worked, then there was hope because Soviets’ weak link was relations with Soviet people who, once the US showed it could contain and drive back Soviets, would foster internal seeds of destruction • THUS saw not just containment but destruction of Soviets
NSC 68 • Based on its assumptions, Secretary of State Dean Acheson favored: • RAPID, MASSIVE MILITARYBUILD-UP • Creation of large military force so would not have to rely on nuclear weapons • Establishment of alliances • PROBLEM: Assumption that Stalin understood only power, so no use to negotiate until build up complete—dismissed idea that this militarization could undermine our system.
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd}Power!
In mid-1947, Marshall, now Secretary of State, sent Gen. Albert Wedemeyer to investigate situation in China • •Wedemeyer’s report recommended massive aid and 10,000 advisors to help the Chinese Nationalist beat Mao’s Communist forces • •Marshall knew this would be inadequate so he did not support or share this report (kept secret) • fueling latter charges that Truman lost China
The Loss of China • In October 1949, Mao Zedong and the communists won the civil war • Jiang and the remnants of the KMT (Kuomintang) fled to Formosa, which they would call Taiwan • In February 1950, Mao and Stalin signed a mutual assistance pact
Essential Questions3.10.09 • What is one (probable) cause of the Korean War? • Why do the Chinese get involved in this war? How does this cause friction between Truman and MacArthur? • Why is the Korean War significant and what is it’s impact?
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”
On the road to Korea After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts. The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38th parallel. The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung. In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
Causes of Korean War 1st Theory • USSR launches a probe, to test things out and see if the Americans will respond: will the Americans stand up to them, or let Korea be taken over? • Americans make a statement that Korea is outside their defense perimeter, therefore, Soviet Union felt they could get away with it • this theory more consistent with Soviet action in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia while they were establishing their eastern sphere of influence (1945 - 48)
Causes of Korean war cont… 2nd Theory • Soviet Union was trying to set up a trap for China which turned communist in 1949 • China is a young upstart nation, as the theory goes, that Stalin wants to put their in place i.e. second to or behind the USSR • so Stalin starts a war to create a situation where China will feel compelled to get involved, get into a direct conflict with the USA, who will humiliate the Chinese and put them in their place
Causes of Korean war cont… 3rd Theory • China, acting on its own, wanted to show the world they were a strong communist nation • problem with this theory is that China had just gone through 23 years of war, last thing China needed was another major conflict
Causes of Korean war cont… 4th Theory • Kim Il Sung, leader of N. Korea, took it upon himself to attack S. Korea, which was a country only because it was divided by the Cold War • Kim Il Sung dies in 1994, taking his secret to the grave