Great Migration Serena Arvizu Dayana Baez Karina De La Rosa Nik Rodriguez
The Great Migration • Beginning in 1815 people left ancestral lands • The first great wave of immigration begins, bringing 5 million immigrants between 1815 and 1860. • considered central experience of Western expansion • Great Migration played a large role in the West’s powerful impact on world
The Pressure of Population • Birthrates declined due to higher standard of living • death rates decline to due to medical revolution • sanitation with treating wounds, improved sewage removal, vaccines, etc. • pop. doubled from 188 million to 432 million (1800-1900)
more than 60 million people left Europe (1815-1932) • moved primarily to N & S America, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia • contributed to rapid growth in population • population grew more rapidly in Africa and Asia than in Euro and Americas • people of Euro origin, world wide, jumped from 22% to 38%
Growing pop helped progress of Western expansion • rapid increase in population • put pressure on the land • inability to keep food production up with pop. growth • relative overpopulation in many areas • migrations normally started 20 years after a significant population increase • baby boomers grew up and migrated due to little opportunity and land availability • rapid pop. increases before great industrial development led to millions of country folk moving abroad for work and better economic opportunity
number of men and women who left Euro increased rapidly after WW1 • more than 11 million left in first decade of 20th C • different countries had different patterns of movement • people left Britain & Ireland in large numbers from 1840s on • less than half of all migrants went to U.S. • Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia & New Zealand also attracted many migrants • migrants accounted for large proportion on populations • commonly and falsely by Americans that migration meant to U.S.
Who Migrated? • peasant landowners or village craftsman • why- life was threatened by little land, eastern agriculture and cheap factory goods • German peasants left Rhineland & Southwestern Germany 1830-1854 • why- they felt trapped by Friedrich List & his Dwarf Economy • Small farmers/ skilled artisans moved to stay ahead of poverty • Young, unmarried & wanted to maintain/improve status = good for country that they went to
Immigrants within Euro • Jews from East Euro & peasants from Ireland migrated to Great Britain • Little land was available in Ireland • Russians and Poles went to Germany for work • Russia- land was held by non-jews, and jews migrated to leave competition in factory • latin people from Spin, Portugal, and Italy went to france • migrants as opposed to immigrants- they returned home • Balkans returned more than Jews and Irish
Italians • 3/4 depended on agriculture • north america - cheap wheat • landowning peasants -> standards of living was falling • they went to U.S, Brazil, Argentina • Brazil had large coffee plants, black slavery collapsed so they promised high wages, and provide travel • Swallows- didn’t want to settle permanently • harvested wheat and flax in Italy & traveled to Argentina to harvest during Dec-April, returned in Spring
Radicals • people also left w/ spirit of revolt and for independence • Sweden, Norway, Jewish russia and Italy- frustrated w/ small privileged class that controlled church and gov’t • migration was the radical way to leave, and began to decrease when people received political/social rights
Asian Migrants • Chinese, Japanese, Indians, & Filipinos left due to rural hardships • 3 million • U.S estate owners hired asians to replace blacks • they went to Goldmines-Latin America/Southern Asia, Africa, California, Hawaii, and Australia • 1840- Cuba and Spain’s Gov’t needed work on field- hired Chinese • 130,000 went to cuba (1853-1873) • Peru- 100,000 chinese in 19th C. • Asians fled Goldmine/plantations when greater opportunities in towns and trades came up • Europeans began stopping Asian migration • 1880- America & Australians created Great White Wall to keep Asians out
The New York Times carried the following story on New Year's Day 1892: Gave Annie Ten Dollars NEW YORK, Jan. 1. — Without any ceremony or formal opening the immigration officials of this city to-day settled down on Ellis Island, in the harbor, and the barge office is known to them no more. The steamship Nevada was the first to arrive at the new landing place. Her immigrants were put aboard the barge J. E. Moore, and amid the blowing of foghorn and whistles approached the pier. Charles M. Hanley, private secretary to the late Secretary Windom, who had asked to be allowed to register the first immigrant, was at the registry desk when there came tripping up a fifteen-year-old-girl, Annie Moore, and her little brother. They had come from Cork to meet their mother, who lives here. Col. Webber greeted Annie, and then presented her with a crisp new $10 bill. Annie Moore is known for being the first person to be registered at Ellis Island. She is honored by two statues, one on Cobh, formerly Queenstown, which is the place of departure and one at Ellis Island .
1. Ellis Island - FREE Port of New York Passenger Records Search ." Ellis Island - FREE Port of New York Passenger Records Search . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/elli 2. " IRISH IMMIGRANT ANNIE MOORE FIRST TO PASS THROUGH ELLIS ISLAND." The Statue of Liberty- Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/a 3. "Annie Moore." Mayo County Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. <http://www.mayolibrary.ie/en/media/ 4. " Image Detail for - http://doctormacro.com/Images/Howard,%20Leslie/Annex/Annex%20-%20Howard,%20Leslie%20(Pygmalion)_01.jpg."Yahoo! Image Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2012. <http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A2KJkK0yz1ZPvD0AGa6JzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dleslie%2Bhoward%2Bbogart%26sado%3D1%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26fr2%3Dsg-gac%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D8&w=795&h=1024&imgurl=doctormacro.com%2FImages%2FHoward%2C%2520Leslie%2FAnnex%2FAnnex%2520-%2520Howard%2C%2520Leslie%2520%28Pygmalion%29_01.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fdoctormacro.com%2FMovie%2520Star%2520Pages%2FHoward%2C%2520Leslie-Annex.htm&size=259.2+KB&name=Leslie+Howard-Annex&p=leslie+howard+bogart&oid=8d5665bc07b890a1fd101f1f80a92220&fr2=sg-gac&fr=&tt=Leslie%2BHoward-Annex&b=0&ni=112&no=8&tab=organic