The Great Migration 1815-1838
Upper Canada After the War of 1812, waves of settlers from Great Britain (Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales) took their place. In 1832 – 50,000 people came to Canada
Why would people come to Canada? 1. Loyalists - left the United States during and after the American Revolution. 3 types of Loyalists • African American Loyalist – Britian offered freedom to any slave who would join British Troops (3500 came to Nova Scotia) • Aboriginal Loyalists – The Iroquois were allies of the British & were worried their lands would be lost if the Patriots won (5000 Iroquois settled in Canada) • Supporters of the British side during the American civil war
Overnight, population of towns grew from a few hundred to 10,000. The entire population of Nova Scotia was 12,000 before the arrival of 35,000 refugees. There were many disappointments among the Loyalists, who had been promised free land and food. Many were dumped ashore and expected to survive on their own. They had come from prosperous farms and now had to start all over again, clearing farmland and building houses. The British government split the colony of Nova Scotia (1784) in two and created the colony of New Brunswick. 80% of the settlers in the new colony were Loyalists.
SOURCE B: Eyewitness sketch of Loyalist refugees at Johnston, Upper Canada 1784 • Using Source A • Why would people of Nova Scotia have been not happy to see the Loyalists arrive? • Using Source B • What would life have been like in the Loyalist camp in the picture? • What challenges faced the Loyalists even if they were given free land? • Imagine that you are one of the people in the picture. Write a letter to a relative, describing your feelings about your new country.
Loyalists - continued The Loyalists were the first large group of English speaking newcomers to settle in Quebec and Nova Scotia. Their experiences during the American Revolution helped make sure that Canada remained connected to England.
Why would people come to Canada? 2. Many tenant farmers in Great Britain were being forced to leave their small farms because it was more profitable for the landlords to use the farms to graze sheep. They sold the wool to factories – made more money than renting to farmers
Come to Canada – Con’t • Unemployment -the 25 year war in Europe was over and many soldiers were not needed - Machines were taking jobs away from craftspeople (eg. Weavers)
Come to Canada – Con’t 3. In Ireland in the 1840’s, many people were starving because of poor potato crops. Video Alternate link
Come to Canada – Con’t By 1860, the majority of English speaking people in Canada were of Irish Descent. • Irish greatly changed make-up of Canadian society • They were mostly Catholic • not necessarily loyal to England • Many preferred cities to farming • By 1871, there were 846 000 Irish in Canada, out of a population of 3.5 million • Only the French outnumbered them
Recruiting Britain was eager to see more people settle in British North America (Canada) so: • Immigrants were offered free passage to Canada • Soldiers were given great incentives to go to Canada (food for a year, tools, etc) This turned out to be very expensive for the British Government so Private Land companies were formed.
Private Land Companies Land developers were granted large sections of land (Crown Land) and in return, they promised to bring in Settlers.
What to Bring Families should take their BeddingBlanketsSheets, &c.Pewter plates, or wooden treuchersKnives and forks, and spoonsMetal cups and mugsTea kettles, and saucepansWorking tools, of all descriptions.(A large tin can, or watering pot would be useful.) Single Men must have A bed or mattressA metal plate, or wooden trencherSome kind of metal cup or mugKnife, fork, and spoonAll, or any of which, may be procured at Portsmouth, if the parties arrive there unprovided.* See Capt. Hale's Instructions, p. 72
More What to Bring The following is the lowest outfit, recommended to Parishes for their Laborers, of course, including such articles as they already possess. A fur capA warm great coatA flushing jacket & trowsers[sic]A duck frock and trowsersA canvas frock and two pairs of trowsersTwo Jersey frocksFour shirtsFour pairs of stockingsThree pairs of shoesA bible and prayer book Women in the same proportion, especially a warm cloak.All the above may be purchased at Petworth. • It is also a matter of great importance, that emigrants should take with them a good character, (if they should have the happiness to possess one,) fairly written, and well attested; also, copies of marriage or baptismal registers, or any other certificates or papers likely to be useful; the whole to be inclosed in a small tin case.
C. Coffin Ships • The voyage lasted 20-60 days • CARGO ships (made for carrying timber) • Called coffin ships, because when they sank everyone went down with the ship.
Living Conditions • Primitive • Unsanitary • Cramped • Rat infested