The Great Migration . 1815-1838. Upper Canada . After the War of 1812, waves of settlers from Great Britain (Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales) took their place. In 1832 – 50,000 people came to Canada. Why would people come to Canada?.
After the War of 1812, waves of settlers from Great Britain (Ireland, Scotland, England, and Wales) took their place.
In 1832 – 50,000 people came to Canada
1. Loyalists - left the United States during and after the American Revolution.
3 types of Loyalists
Overnight, population of towns grew from a few hundred to 10,000. The entire population of Nova Scotia was 12,000 before the arrival of 35,000 refugees.
There were many disappointments among the Loyalists, who had been promised free land and food. Many were dumped ashore and expected to survive on their own. They had come from prosperous farms and now had to start all over again, clearing farmland and building houses.
The British government split the colony of Nova Scotia (1784) in two and created the colony of New Brunswick. 80% of the settlers in the new colony were Loyalists.
SOURCE B: Eyewitness sketch of Loyalist refugees at Johnston, Upper Canada 1784
The Loyalists were the first large group of English speaking newcomers to settle in Quebec and Nova Scotia. Their experiences during the American Revolution helped make sure that Canada remained connected to England.
2. Many tenant farmers in Great Britain were being forced to leave their small farms because it was more profitable for the landlords to use the farms to graze sheep.
They sold the wool to factories – made more money than renting to farmers
-the 25 year war in Europe was over and many soldiers were not needed
- Machines were taking jobs away from craftspeople (eg. Weavers)
3. In Ireland in the 1840’s, many people were starving because of poor potato crops.
By 1860, the majority of English speaking people in Canada were of Irish Descent.
Britain was eager to see more people settle in British North America (Canada) so:
This turned out to be very expensive for the British Government so Private Land companies were formed.
Land developers were granted large sections of land (Crown Land) and in return, they promised to bring in Settlers.
Families should take their
BeddingBlanketsSheets, &c.Pewter plates, or wooden treuchersKnives and forks, and spoonsMetal cups and mugsTea kettles, and saucepansWorking tools, of all descriptions.(A large tin can, or watering pot would be useful.)
Single Men must have
A bed or mattressA metal plate, or wooden trencherSome kind of metal cup or mugKnife, fork, and spoonAll, or any of which, may be procured at Portsmouth, if the parties arrive there unprovided.* See Capt. Hale's Instructions, p. 72
The following is the lowest outfit, recommended to Parishes for their Laborers, of course, including such articles as they already possess.
A fur capA warm great coatA flushing jacket & trowsers[sic]A duck frock and trowsersA canvas frock and two pairs of trowsersTwo Jersey frocksFour shirtsFour pairs of stockingsThree pairs of shoesA bible and prayer book
Women in the same proportion, especially a warm cloak.All the above may be purchased at Petworth.