A GREAT MIGRATION / A GREAT DEGRADATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A GREAT MIGRATION / A GREAT DEGRADATION
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A GREAT MIGRATION / A GREAT DEGRADATION

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  1. A GREAT MIGRATION / A GREAT DEGRADATION Obj: To determine the role of the U.S. Government in western settlement by looking at Indian Policy and Congressional Legislation

  2. ALL THAT GLITTERS IS NOT GOLD • WAVING THE BLOODY SHIRT: 1868 • ROOT, HOG OR DIE: SELF RELIANCE • DARWIN’S THEORY MANIPULATED TO APPLY TO SOCIETY • WM. SUMNER & SOCIAL DARWINISM • INDIVIDUALISM & SECTIONALISM- WAR OVER BUT NOT FEELINGS • MAJOR ISSUES GO UNADDRESSED • BLACKS – CIVIL RIGHTS CASES 1883 DECLARE CIVIL RIGHS ACT 1875 UNCON-STITUTIONAL. BLACKS REMAIN MIRED IN POVERTY DUE TO RECONSTRUCTION & JIM CROW • CURRENCY : RETURN TO GOLD STANDARD • CIVIL SERVICE: GRANT SCANDALS & PENDELTON ACT 1883

  3. THE GREAT AMERICAN DESERT 1825-1865 • 1ST ½ 19TH CENTURY AMERICANS BELIEVED AREA UNINHABITABLE • BUFFALO, SOD, INDIANS MADE IT UNATTRACTIVE • EVE OF CIVIL WAR INDIANS ½ THE POPULATION & ¼ MILLION ROAMED THE GREAT PLAINS • CONTACT WITH WHITES ALREADY MADE – HORSE MOST TRANSFOR-MING ADAPTATION FOR INDIANS • PLAINS INDIANS NOMADIC, FOLLOWED BUFFALO, SOME INTER TRIBAL WARFARE

  4. INDIAN POLICY • EXPANSION WITH HONOR 1784 • INDIAN REMOVAL 1834 • CONCENTRATION 1851 – DEFINITE BOUNDARIES, INDIVIDUAL TRIBAL TREATIES • HUNTING/ROAMING GROUNDS LIMITED • DISCOVERY OF GOLD FORCES NEW POLICY • 1860 8 MAJOR RESERVATIONS • 1870 NO LONGER CONGRESSIONAL ACTS BUT EXECUTIVE ORDER DUE TO CORRUPTION

  5. INDIAN WARS • COLORADO GOLD – INDIANS CHOOSE WARFARE OVER NEGOTIATIN – SAND CREEK • SIOUX WARS 1865-67 & TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE • PANIC 1873 – NEED SPECIE • BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN • BUFFALO SOLDIERS 2K FROM 1867-90 • ASSIMILATION 1871 • CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL, PA 1879 “KILL THE INDIAN, SAVE THE MAN”

  6. DAWES SEVERALTY ACT 1887 • TREAT INDIANS AS INDIVIDUALS NOT TRIBES, GROUPS • DIVIDE TRIBAL LAND, CITIZENSHIP AVAILABLE • FOR WHITES ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENT TIED TO INDIVIDU-ALISM. DESTRUCTION PRICE FOR CIVILIZATION • HELEN HUNT JACKSON & 1881 CENTURY OF DISHONOR – OUT OF REFORMER TRADITION, LITTLE IMPACT • GHOST DANCE & WOUNDED KNEE – LAST ARMED RESISTANCE 1890

  7. MOVING WEST • MORE LAND OPEN TO AGRICULTURE THAN LAST 250 YRS. COMBINED • HOMESTEAD ACT 1862: 160 ACRES, $10, STAY 5 YEARS & IMPROVE THE LAND OR $1.25/ACRE & STAY 6 MONTHS; GOV’T GAVE AWAY 48 MILL, SOLD 100 MILL, 128 MILL IN LAND GRANT; START UP COSTS $1,200, 3X ANNUAL AVERAGE • TIMBER CULTURE ACT 1873: RECEIVE EXTRA 160 ACRES & PLANT TREES ON 25% • DESERT LAND ACT 1877: 640 ACRES @ $1.25 & IRRIGATE PART W/I 3 YEARS • TIMBER & STONE ACT 1878: $2.50/ACRE, LUMBER CO’S CLEAN UP! • 2/3 ALL HOMESTEADERS FAILED BY 1890

  8. MINING: 1ST MAJOR INDUSTRY TO ATTRACTPEOPLE WEST – 1848 GOLD IN CALIFORNIA • SIERRA NEVADAS 1852 • COMSTOCK LODE 1853 • 1900 $1BILLION WORTH OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA ALONE • MONTANA – IMMIGRANT MECCA DUE TO JOB AVAILABILITY • INDIVIDUAL MINERS SELL OUT TO LARGE CORPORATIONS • ANACONDA MINING: MONEY & MEANS TO GET TO VEINS OF SILVER AND GOLD • ENVIRONMENTAL DEVASTATION NOT ANYONE’S MAJOR CONCERN

  9. GIVE ME LAND, LOTS OF LAND UNDER STARRY SKIES ABOVE, DON’T FENCE ME IN! What role did the U.S. Government play in western development from 1860-1890? Which actions of the government supported the laissez-faire philosophy and which did not?

  10. FARMING THE FRONTIERBETWEEN 1870-1890 HUGE INCREASE IN PRODUCTION • PLENTY OF SPACE – LIBERAL LAND POLICIES – HOMESTEAD ACT & MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT 1862- IMPROVED KNOWLEDGE & EDUCATION OF FARMING, HUSBANDRY, LAND MANAGEMENT ETC. • CLEVER & SUCCESSFUL SOLUTIONS CREATED TO FARM MIDWEST; DRY FARMING, IRRIGATION, WINDMILLS • TECHNOLOGY – DEERE & MCCORMICK • BONANZA FARMING TAKES OVER FROM INDIVIDUALS – BECOMES AN INDUSTRY • INCREASE IN POPULATION NEEDS TO EAT • LOANS, CASH CROPS, PANIC 1873 – CYCLE BEGINS • MOTHER NATURE 1885-1887

  11. BOOM & BUST FOR FARMERSPANICS 1873 & 1893

  12. TRANSPORTATION ADVANCES: PACIFICRAILWAY ACT 1862 EXPLOITATION PARTIALLY DUE TO GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES OF RR LAND DEVASTATED BUT AMERICA & AMERICAN LIFE TRANSFORMED 1910 9 LINES: RAPID RAIL CON-STRUCTION POSSIBLE DUE TO FEDERAL & STATE INCENTIVES 170 MILL ACRES OF LAND GIVEN TO RR FROM FEDERAL GOV’T WIDESPREAD SLAUGHTER OF BUFFALO TO FEED RR CREW: AN-OTHER NAIL IN THE COFFIN OF NATIVE AMERICANS TRANSCONTINENTAL RR: UNION PACIFIC & CENTRAL PACIFIC 12,000 CHINESE, NUMBEROUS IRISH, VETERANS, BLACKS & MEXICANS 5/10/1869 PROMONTORY POINT, UT PANIC 1893 – ONLY RR THAT DIDN’T DECLARE BANKRUPTCY WAS TRANS.

  13. CHINESE WORKERS & BISON SKULL PILE

  14. BOOM & BUST IN THE CATTLE INDUSTRY • EASTERN DEMAND FOR MEAT, GROWING POPULATION & RR CONTRIBUTE TO BOOM • OPEN RANGE, PEAK YEARS 1880-1885, COWBOY’S ¼ BLACK & ¼ MEXICAN – SKILLS CAME NORTH • J. MCCOY & LONG DRIVE 1869 • TEXAS LONGHORN: BUY AT $5/HEAD & SEEL AT $40/HEAD IN KS • OTHER INDUSTRIES THRIVE: RR, MEATPACKING, REGRIGERATION • 1880 6MILLION HEAD TRANSPORTED VIA RR • BATTLE BETWEEN RANCHERS & FARMERS, BARBED WIRE • OVERSUPPLY, OVERGRAZING, OVERCROWDED PRARIE LANDS • TEXAS FEVER: UP TO 90% DIE IN SOME AREAS • MOTHER NATURE 1885-1887 “THE BIG DIE UP”