The Great Migration • Between 1910 and 1920 • Mass migration in which hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved north in search of jobs. • By 1930, 40% of African Americans lived in Northern cities
New Goals • The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was founded in 1909 to end racial violence. • Fought for legislation that would protect African American rights. • The UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) argued for a separate black society under the direction of Marcus Garvey.
The Harlem Renaissance • Many African Americans who moved to New York City ended up in a neighborhood called Harlem. • Quickly became the world’s largest black urban community. • Became the home of a literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture
Harlem Renaissance • Led by well-educated, middle-class African Americans who wanted to express pride in their culture • Included authors, songwriters, poets, artists, and musicians • Included James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen among many others