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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. Chapter 25. The Movement Begins. Section 1. Plessy vs. Ferguson - 1896 ruling that established “Separate but Equal” - which meant segregation was legal as long as facilities were equal “Jim Crow Laws” - set of unwritten rules that kept blacks and whites separate

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section 1
Section 1
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson - 1896 ruling that established “Separate but Equal” - which meant segregation was legal as long as facilities were equal
  • “Jim Crow Laws” - set of unwritten rules that kept blacks and whites separate
  • De Facto segregation - segregation by custom and tradition
  • NAACP (1909) - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
court cases
Court Cases
  • Norris v. Alabama (1935) - not allowing blacks on a jury was unconstitutional
  • Morgan v. Virginia (1946) - segregation on buses was illegal
  • Sweat v. Painter (1950) - schools had to admit blacks if there wasn’t a black school
sect 1 cont
Sect. 1 cont.
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - began using sit-ins as a form of protest (1943)
  • Thurgood Marshall - African American lawyer and director of legal defense for the NAACP
  • --eventual Supreme Court Justice
  • Opposition in Congress -
  • Southern manifesto (101 members) -denounced segregation
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote
sect 1
Sect.1
  • Rosa Parks - mother of the civil rights movement refused to give up her seat
  • Montgomery, Alabama
  • Sparked the bus boycott that lasted a year
  • Martin Luther King, JR. - 26 year old Baptist Minister
  • Preached non-violent, passive resistance
end of sect 1
End of Sect. 1
  • SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote
  • Little Rock 9
  • President - Eisenhower
  • Gov. of Arkansas - Orval Faubas
  • Central High School had to allow 9 blacks into their school
  • Faubus refuses, calls out the national guard to stop them
  • Eisenhower orders Federal troops to protect students
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957 - protect rights of blacks to vote
section 2
Section 2
  • Sit - ins - college students involved in non-violent protest (cafes)
  • Jesse Jackson - student leader at N.C.
  • Ella Baker - Ex. Dir. Of the SCLC (for students)
  • Student non-violent coordinating Commission (SNCC) - organized blacks and some white college students
  • Marion Barry - 1st chairperson, served later as Mayor of Washington D.C.
sect 2 cont
Sect. 2 cont.
  • Fannie Lou Hammer - arrested for helping blacks vote
  • Freedom riders - CORE members rode segregated buses in the deep south
  • JFK - appointed 40 African Americans to high level positions
  • Committee on Equal Opportunity Employment - stop Fed. Gov. from discriminating while hiring
sect 2 continued
Sect. 2 continued
  • James Meredith - Air Force Vet. That applied to the U. of Mississippi
  • Gov. Ross Barnett blocked his entrance, JFK had to send troops to make sure he got in
  • MLK started to protest in Alabama , he was arrested and wrote a letter while in jail to explain why people had the right to protest
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 - rights for African Americans, Gov. had the power to prevent discrimination
sect 2 cont11
Sect. 2 cont.
  • Filibuster - refusal to stop debate so the representatives can vote
  • Cloture - motion to cut off debate
  • March on Washington - 200,000 people listened to speeches in front of Lincoln Memorial
  • MLK - “I Have a Dream”
last of sect 2
Last of Sect. 2
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - Fed. Agency to monitor discrimination
  • Voting Rights - some places would charge a poll tax - fees to vote
  • March on Selma, Alabama - marched to vote and they were met at the bridge and beaten
  • Successful after protection from the Gov.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 - passed by LBJ
  • Allowed Fed. Examiners to help people to vote
section 3
Section 3
  • 1965 - 70% of blacks lived in cities, 1/2 lived in poverty, income was 1/2 that of whites
  • Watts Riots - In a black neighborhood in L.A., alleged police brutality led to a riot
  • -$30 million in damage, 34 people killed
  • 1967 - riot in Detroit , 43 dead
sect 3 cont
Sect. 3 cont.
  • Kerner Commission 1967- advisory board on civil disorder, blamed white racism, needed to create jobs in inner cities
  • Chicago movement - Dr. King and wife moved into slum area
  • Richard Daley - mayor of Chicago, protected King and others marching in all white neighborhoods
sect 3 cont15
Sect. 3 cont.
  • Black Power - more radical civil rights , often violence
  • Stokeley Carmichael - leader of the SNCC in 1966, blacks can control their own destiny
  • Cultural assimilation - adapting to majorities culture
  • Malcolm X - part of the black power movement, member of Nation of Islam - Elijah Muhummad leader, preached separation
  • Malcolm broke away from the NOI and was killed by 3 members, Feb. 1965
last of sect 3
Last of Sect. 3
  • Black Panthers - wanted a revolution of blacks vs. whites (separation by force if needed)
  • Eldridge Cleaver - wrote “Souls on Ice”
  • MLK Jr. killed in 1968 by James Earl Ray
  • James Abernathy took over the fight
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968 - added a part for equal housing
review for ch 24
Review for Ch. 24
  • Things to study:
  • Court cases - Norris v. Alabama - couldn’t exclude blacks on juries
  • Sweatt v. Painter - had to admit black applicants to law school
  • Brown v. Board of Ed. - couldn’t segregate schools, basically overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Morgan v. Virginia- segregation on buses was unconstitutional
  • N. Carolina - sit-in (Woolworths), Tennessee (assassination of MLK), Arkansas (state v. fed gov in Little Rock 9), Alabama (bus boycott)
  • Black power - self defense, violence if necessary, control the social and economic direction of blacks, pride and race distinctiveness
  • MLK - passive non-violence EVER