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4/29/03 ASA Nashville, Session 2pAAb Relationships of Synthesis and Processing to “Acoustical” music. Inside-in: alternative paradigms for sound spatialization Curtis Bahn, Stephan Moore Integrated Electronic Arts at Rensselaer (iEAR) Studios Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Inside-in:

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slide1

4/29/03 ASA Nashville, Session 2pAAb

Relationships of Synthesis and Processing to “Acoustical” music.

Inside-in: alternative paradigms for sound spatialization

Curtis Bahn, Stephan Moore

Integrated Electronic Arts at Rensselaer (iEAR) Studios

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

slide2

Inside-in:

  • Review the use of spherical speaker arrays and sensor-speaker arrays (SenSAs) in performance and installation.
slide3

Inside-in:

  • Review the use of spherical speaker arrays and sensor-speaker arrays (SenSAs) in performance and installation.
  • Detail our recent development of “third generation” spherical speaker arrays.
slide4

Inside-in:

  • Review the use of spherical speaker arrays and sensor-speaker arrays (SenSAs) in performance and installation.
  • Detail our recent development of “third generation” spherical speaker arrays.
  • Present recent work with spherical speaker arrays and SenSAs.
slide5

This work builds upon:

“Alternative Voices for Electronic Sound”

1st-2nd generation speaker designs and applications.

Trueman, Bahn, Cook - ASA 2000

“Physicality and Feedback”

Aesthetic and technical considerations

in sensor/speaker applications for performance.

Bahn, Hahn, Trueman - ASA 2001

conventional systems

Spherical Speaker Arrays and “SenSAs:” Background

Conventional Systems:
  • Forward projecting stereo “PA” style systems.”
  • Outside-In, multi-channel, “Surround” configurations.
conventional systems7

Spherical Speaker Arrays and “SenSAs:” Background

Conventional Systems:
  • Surround the audience in order to provide an “immersive” sonic experience.
  • Disassociate the acoustic source of sound production and the electronic image creating a “plane of separation” between acoustic and electronic sources, and between electronic sounds and the audience.
  • Acoustic sources are absorbed into electronic sound-space, usually via subtle addition of artificial reverberation (sound reinforcement).
spherical systems

Spherical Speaker Arrays and “SenSAs:” Background

Spherical Systems:
  • “Inside-Out,” single point source instrument-like sonic radiation.
  • Engage natural acoustic qualities of performance spaces. Electronic sources are absorbed into the acoustic sound-space.
  • No ideal listening location

or, “sweet spot.”

spherical systems9

Spherical Speaker Arrays and “SenSAs:” Background

Spherical Systems:
  • Very successful with small chamber music ensembles and in small spaces.
  • Often successful with larger ensembles, in large spaces, and in combination with traditional sound-reinforcement systems.
  • Natural localization and sound segregation of sources.
  • No “plane-of-separation” between electronic and

acoustic sources.

slide10

Spherical Speaker Arrays and “SenSAs:” Background

Sensor/Speaker Arrays or “SenSAs.”

  • Integration of sensing technologies, concepts of Human/Computer Interface (HCI) design, and sonic display.
  • New electronic instruments with acoustical properties enhance the presence and intimacy of electro-acoustic music performance.
slide11

Spherical Speaker Arrays

  • Spherical speakers have long been applied in the study of
  • The acoustic qualities of performance spaces:
  • Hidaka and Beranek, 1991
slide12

Spherical Speaker Arrays

  • Spherical speakers have long been applied in the study of
  • The acoustic qualities of performance spaces:
  • Hidaka and Beranek, 1991
  • The acoustic qualities of instruments:
  • Causse, et al., 1992
  • Roads,1996
  • Wessel,1991
slide13

The “Nbody Project” Cook and Trueman - 1998

Study of the directional radiative qualities of acoustic instruments

Multi-channel microphone array

Software interface to manipulate and apply impulse response analyses

slide15

Trueman’s first sphere,“R2” (1998)

Provided “presence and intimacy” in electro-acoustic performance and changed the approach to sonic display in our group, “interface.”

slide16

the “critter”

12 discreet channels

individually enclosed drivers

Designed by Dan and

Lawrence Trueman (1999)

slide17

“Bubba” (Bahn)

A 23” 12-channel spherical speaker array

based on the “critter” design (2000)

slide18

Second Generation Spherical Speakers

24 spherical enclosures

fabricated by

U.S. Enclosures Inc.

(2000-2001)

slide19

Second Generation Applications:

  • Performance Arrays
  • Sensor/Speaker Arrays
  • Sound Installations
slide20

Bahn 2nd generation set-up

“The r!g” (2001)

slide22

Trueman 2nd generation set-ups

“Trollstilt”

Dan Trueman &

Monica Mugan

Colgate Chapel

2002

Electro-Acoustic mixed ensembles: Trollstilt, Machine Language

slide24

BoSSA (1998-present)

Bowed-Sensor-Speaker-Array

A sensor/speaker array, SenSA

slide29

PariSphere 1

Interactive sound installation, Cook (2000)

slide30

Multi-channel speaker array for

Telephonic Displacements (2001)

Interactive sound installation, Moore, Engel, Place

slide32

Third Generation Spherical Speakers (2002-2003)

  • Rensselaer research/development project fabricates
  • ~60 new speakers with a modified “critter” design.
  • 2 channel spherical or 1 channel
  • hemispherical applications.
  • First experiments with large scale diffusion arrays
  • of single point source speakers.
  • Speakers and approach to sound spatialization becoming
  • more widely used.
slide33

Third Generation Spherical Speakers

Design and fabrication

Jigs created for accurate

mass production

slide34

Third Generation Spherical Speakers

Preparation for painting

Sealing the hemispheres

slide38

Third Generation Spherical Speakers

Installing Polk Audio coaxial drivers.

slide39

Initial Tests

First configuration:16 channel 4x4 grid

slide40

Initial Tests

All speakers underwent a rigorous evaluation process…

slide41

Spatialization Software

  • Custom spatialization software developed using Max/MSP/jitter by cycling74.
  • 4x4 matrix panning based on “equal power curve” and Gaussian functions.
  • Scalable sound size or “radius.”
  • Implementation of “Sonic Geometries,” (Oliveros) and randomized movement.
  • Hooks for external control of sound object placement.
slide42

Software Interface

high resolution sensor data

sensor matrix

slide43

Third Generation Applications:

  • Sound Installations
  • Large-scale Performance Arrays
  • Sensor/Speaker Arrays
slide44

The Swamp (2002)

Stephan Moore

slide46

Low Ceiling (2003)

Stephan Moore

slide47

Multi-screen video display

  • “interface”
  • Speaker
  • Installation
  • 4/23
  • 36 channels
  • 34 enclosures
  • 186 drivers

instrumentalists

Speaker Grid Over Audience

Quad system under seats and behind screens

slide51

Sonic Mask (2003 - prototype)

Interactive sonic character integrating

sonic display and wireless sensor/audio data

Curtis Bahn/ Tomie Hahn

slide54

Thanks to the Integrated Electronic Arts Program

Rensselaer Polytechnic institute - iEAR Studios.

Polk Audio, Inc.

Partners in crime:

David Lublin, Jonathan Marcus - Undergraduate Research Assistants

Dan Trueman, Perry Cook, Tomie Hahn

slide55

Curtis Bahn crb@rpi.edu

http://www.arts.rpi.edu/crb

Stephan Moore stephan@oddnoise.com

http://www.oddnoise.com/

For more information on “the cult of the spherical speakers”

(including purchase):

http://www.oddnoise.com/spheres.html

slide56

Inside-in: alternative paradigms for sound spatialization

Curtis Bahn, Stephan Moore

Integrated Electronic Arts at Rensselaer (iEAR) Studios

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute