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Chapter 8-The Asian World. Section 2-The Mongols and China. The Mongols and China. Main Ideas. The Mongols acquired the world’s largest land empire. . With the invention of printing, a golden age of literature and art emerged in China. . Key Terms. khanate . neo-Confucianism 

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chapter 8 the asian world

Chapter 8-The Asian World

Section 2-The Mongols and China

slide2

The Mongols and China

Main Ideas

  • The Mongols acquired the world’s largest land empire. 
  • With the invention of printing, a golden age of literature and art emerged in China. 

Key Terms

  • khanate 
  • neo-Confucianism 
  • porcelain

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slide3

The Mongols and China

People to Identify

  • Genghis Khan 
  • Li Bo 
  • Duo Fu 
  • Kublai Khan 

Places to Locate

  • Mongolia 
  • Vietnam 
  • Java 
  • Sumatra
  • Gobi 
  • Beijing 

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section 2 3
Section 2-3

The Mongols and China

Preview Questions

  • What were the major achievements of the Mongol dynasty? 
  • What changes resulted from the Mongol invasions?

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slide5

The Mongols and China

Preview of Events

slide7

Genghis Khan used homing pigeons as messengers for military and political instructions. As he expanded his territory, he set up pigeon relay posts across Asia and much of eastern Europe; the pigeons transmitted instructions to his capital for the governing of his distant dominions.

slide8

The Mongol Empire

  • The Mongols came from present-day Mongolia.
  • They were organized loosely into clans. 
  • Temujin gradually unified the Mongols. 
  • In 1206 he was elected Genghis Khan(“strong ruler”) at a massive meeting in the Gobi.
  • He devoted himself to conquest.

(pages 253–254)

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slide9

The Mongol Empire (cont.)

  • The Mongols created the largest land empire in history, comprising much of the Eurasian landmass. 
  • Its capital was at Karakorum. 
  • Genghis Khan died in 1227. 
  • Following Mongol custom, the empire was divided among his sons into several khanates.
  • Mongol forces soon attacked the Persians, Abbasids, and the Song.

(pages 253–254)

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slide10

The Mongol Empire (cont.)

  • In attacking the Song, the Mongols first experienced gunpowder and the fire-lance. 
  • The latter evolved into more effective handguns and cannons. 
  • By the early fourteenth century foreigners in the employ of Mongol rulers brought gunpowder and firearms to Europe.

(pages 253–254)

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slide11

The Mongol Dynasty in China

  • In 1279 Kublai Khancompleted conquering the Song. 
  • He established the Yuan dynasty in China. 
  • He established the capital at Khanbaliq (“the city of the Khan”), now known as Beijing.

(pages 254–255)

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slide12

The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)

  • Under Kublai Khan, Mongol forces advanced against Vietnam, Java, Sumatra,and Japan. 
  • Mongol military tactics, such as cavalry charges and siege warfare, were not effective in these largely tropical, hilly regions. 
  • These Mongol campaigns failed.

(pages 254–255)

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slide13

The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)

  • The Mongols were successful at ruling China. 
  • They adapted to the Chinese political system and used Chinese bureaucrats. 
  • The Mongols formed their own class, however, staffing the highest positions in the bureaucracy.

(pages 254–255)

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slide14

The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)

  • Over time, the Mongol dynasty won the support of the Chinese people, in part due to the economic prosperity and social stability the Mongols brought. 
  • Marco Polowrote glowingly of Khanbaliq. 
  • His stories of the glories of China seemed unbelievable to Europeans.

(pages 254–255)

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slide15

The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.)

  • The Mongol dynasty finally fell apart due to problems that affected the other dynasties: too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and growing internal instability. 
  • In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, the son of a peasant, formed an army, ended the Mongol dynasty, and established the Ming dynasty.

(pages 254–255)

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slide16

Religion and Government

  • By the time of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and Daoism had emerged to rival Confucianism. 
  • Confucianism reemerged during the Song dynasty and held its dominance until the early twentieth century.

(pages 255–256)

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slide17

Religion and Government (cont.)

  • Buddhism came to China in the first century A.D.
  • Indian merchants and missionaries brought it. 
  • Because of the instability after the collapse of the Han dynasty, both Buddhism and Daoism attracted many people, especially the ruling classes, intellectuals, and the wealthy.

(pages 255–256)

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slide18

Religion and Government (cont.)

  • Early Tang rulers supported monasteries, and Buddhists became advisers at the imperial court. 
  • Ultimately, however, Buddhism was criticized and attacked. 
  • Buddhism was attacked for being a foreign religion. 
  • Also, the Buddhist monasteries held lands and serfs, and with these holdings came corruption.

(pages 255–256)

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slide19

Religion and Government (cont.)

  • During the late Tang period, the government destroyed many Buddhist temples and forced more than 260,000 monks and nuns to return to secular life. 
  • Buddhism and Daoism no longer enjoyed state support.

(pages 255–256)

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slide20

Religion and Government (cont.)

  • Official support went to a revived Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism.
  • It differs from the original Confucianism. 
  • It teaches that the world is real, not illusory, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world.

(pages 255–256)

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slide21

Religion and Government (cont.)

  • Neo-Confucianists divide the world into material and spiritual worlds. Humans link the two. 
  • We live in the material world but are linked with the Supreme Ultimate. 
  • The goal of humans is to unify with the Supreme Ultimate, through a careful examination of the moral principles that rule the universe.

(pages 255–256)

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slide22

A Golden Age in Literature and Art

  • The invention of printing during the Tang dynasty helped make literature available and popular. 
  • The period between the Tang and Ming dynasties was a great age of Chinese literature. 
  • Art also flourished.

(pages 256–257)

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slide23

A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)

  • Poetry was the highest literary art of the time. 
  • Some 2,200 authors wrote at least 48,000 poems. 
  • They celebrated the beauty of nature, the changes of seasons, and the joys of friendship. 
  • The expressed the sadness of parting and life’s brevity.

(pages 256–257)

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slide24

A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)

  • Li Boand Duo Fuwere two of the most popular poets. 
  • One of Li Bo’s poems has been memorized by Chinese schoolchildren for centuries. 
  • He was a free spirit known for his nature poetry. 
  • Duo Fu was a serious Confucian concerned with social justice and the plight of the poor.

(pages 256–257)

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slide25

A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)

  • Landscape painting reached its height during the Song and Mongol dynasties. 
  • Painters went into the mountains to paint and find the Dao, or Way, in nature. 
  • The word for landscape in Chinese means “mountain-water” and reflects the Daoist search for balance between Earth and water.

(pages 256–257)

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slide26

A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)

  • Chinese artists tried to depict the idea of the landscape, not how it appeared realistically. 
  • Empty spaces were left in the paintings because Daoists believe one cannot know the whole truth. 
  • Daoist influence also caused the people to be quite small in these landscapes, not dominating but living within nature.

(pages 256–257)

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slide27

A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)

  • Ceramics, and especially Tang-period porcelain,a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures, flourished. 
  • The technique for making porcelain did not reach Europe until the eighteenth century.

(pages 256–257)

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