THE EAST ASIAN WORLD REVIEW BOOK CHAPTER 17
The Ming Dynasty… • Began with the overthrow of the Mongols in 1368 and lasted until 1644. • Effective government with bureaucracy staffed with officials who had passed civil service exams. • Completed Grand Canal
The Ming Dynasty • Schools based on ideas of Confucius. • Significant period of economic and cultural growth in China. • Declined due to weak rulers, corrupt government, high taxes low crop yields, peasant unrest, and a major epidemic in the 1630s.
Voyages of Zheng He • Zheng He commanded a fleet of 317 ships crewed by 27,870 men. • This fleet made seven voyages between 1405 and 1433 including to the western coast of India and city states in Africa. • The Voyages yielded great profits through trade. • They benefited from magnetic compasses and star charts invented by the Chinese
The Qing Dynasty… • The Manchus, a farming and hunting people who lived in modern day Manchuria pushed through the great wall and conquered Beijing. • They forced acceptance of their culture by ordering all Chinese men to adopt their dress and hairstyles under penalty of death.
The Qing Dynasty • They also impressed Chinese scholar-officials by adopting the civil service exam system and other Confucian ideals. • Through strong emperors they returned prosperity to China and lasted until 1911. • During this period many western nations sought trade with China. • This trade was often either limited or rejected because of Chinese ethnocentrism.
Economic Changes • Between 1390 and 1800 the population of China soared from 80 million to 300 million due to an abundant food supply. • The population increase lead to shortages of land and food which created unrest among the people. • China did not develop commercial capitalism like most of Europe as the government controlled trade and manufacturing.
Daily Life • Confucian emphasis on family contributed to the stability of society. • People were expected to sacrifice individual needs for the good of their family. • Filial piety was key to the Chinese family system.
Daily Life • Women were considered inferior to men. • They could not be educated, have careers, inherit property, or initiate divorce. • Men could divorce women who did not bear sons. • Two-thirds of women bound their feet. • Peasant women who worked in fields did not because the practice crippled women.
Cultural Developments • Famous novels like The Golden Lotus (Ming Dynasty)and The Dream of the Red Chamber (Qing Dynasty) are still popular in China today. • The Imperial City in Beijing was a great example of Chinese architecture from the Ming Dynasty. • Blue and white porcelain from the two dynasties are still highly valued today.