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Chapter 10: The Asian World

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  1. Chapter 10: The Asian World

  2. DO NOW • WHAT IS GOING ON IN OUR ECONOMY TODAY? HOW IS IT EFFECTING YOU AND YOUR FAMILY? WHAT IS A RECESSION?

  3. DO NOW • STUDY FOR CHAPTERS 3 & 4 THAT YOU ARE BEING TESTED OVER TODAY. • ONCE YOU ARE FINISHED WITH THE TEST QUIETLY READ PAGE 138-144 AND COMPLETE QUESTIONS 2, 3, 4, AND 5 ON PAGE 144.

  4. DO NOW • HOW DO THE ANCIENT CHINESE VIEW THEIR LEADER? WHAT DOES THAT RULER HAVE THAT ALLOWS HIM TO RULE? WHAT HAPPENS IF A NATURAL DISASTER OCCURS IN THE DYNASTY? WHAT CAN THE PEOPLE DO TO THEIR LEADER? • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOK ON PAGES 91-92 IN THE SECTION TITLED ZHOU DYNASTY

  5. DO NOW • HOW DO THE ANCIENT CHINESE VIEW THEIR LEADER? WHAT DOES THAT RULER HAVE THAT ALLOWS HIM TO RULE? WHAT HAPPENS IF A NATURAL DISASTER OCCURS IN THE DYNASTY? WHAT CAN THE PEOPLE DO TO THEIR LEADER? • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOK ON PAGES 70-72 IN THE SECTION TITLED ZHOU DYNASTY

  6. The Han dynasty came to an end in 220, and China fell into chaos. For the next 300 yrs, the Chinese suffered through disorder and civil war. Then in 581, a new Chinese empire was set up under a dynasty known as the Sui. The Sui dynasty (581-618) did not last long, but it managed to unify China once again under the emperor’s authority.

  7. 1. Sui Dynasty 2. Sui Yangdi 1. dynasty that rose after the fall of the Han Dynasty; unified China again 2. emperor who completed the Grand Canal built to link the two great rivers of China (Huang He and the Chang Jiang rivers) Section 1: China Reunified: The Grand Canal built to link these two major rivers linked north and south, making it easier to ship rice from south to north.

  8. 3. Tang Dynasty 3. Restored civil service examination to serve as the method of recruiting officials for the bureaucracy. The Tang Dynasty gave land back to the peasants breaking up the power of the aristocrats Sui Yangdi was a cruel ruler and used force labor to build the Grand Canal. This practice together with high taxes, his extravagant and luxurious lifestyle, and military failures, caused a rebellion. The emperor was murdered, and his dynasty came to an end. A new dynasty the Tang Dynasty soon emerged. It would last for almost three hundred years, from 618-907. The early Tang rulers began their reigns by instituting reforms, as rulers often did in the early days of new dynasties. They restored civil service examination from earlier times to serve as the chief methods of recruiting officials. Tang rulers worked hard to create a more stable economy by giving land to the peasants and breaking up the power of the aristocrats.

  9. 4. Tang Xuanzang 4. One of the rulers who was unable to prevent plotting and government corruption within the Tang Dynasty Like the Han, however, the Tang sowed the seeds of their own destruction. Tang rulers were unable to prevent plotting and government corruption. One emperor was especially unfortunate. Emperor Tang Xuanzang is remembered for his devotion to a commoner’s daughter. To entertain her, he kept hundreds of dancers and musicians at court. He also ordered riders to travel thousands of miles to bring her fresh fruit. Finally, the emperor’s favorite general led a bloody revolt. The army demanded that someone be held accountable for the war and strife in the country. For this reason the emperor invited his true love to hang herself from a nearby tree.

  10. 5. Uighurs 5. a northern tribal group of Turkic-speaking people, hired to fight for the Tang dynasty During the eight century, the Tang Dynasty weakened and became prey to rebellions. Tang rulers hired a group of people called Uighurs to protect the dynasty. Continued unrest, however, led to the collapse of Tang rule in 907.

  11. In 960, a new dynasty known as the Song rose to power. The Song ruled during a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement, from 960 to 1279. From the start, however, the Song also experienced problems, especially from northern neighbors. These groups crossed into northern China and occupied large parts of Chinese territory. Because of this threat, Song rulers were forced to move the imperial court father south. • 6. Song Dynasty • 7. Hangzhou • 8. Song’s government • 6. dynasty which arises after the fall of the Tang dynasty • 7. Capital of Song dynasty, one of the largest and richest cities of the Song empire • 8. Bureaucracy; government also weakened the aristocrats, giving land back to peasants

  12. The Song government worked to weaken the power of the large landholders and help poor peasants obtain their own land. These reform efforts and improved farming techniques led to an abundance of food. In Chinese cities, technological developments added new products and stimulated trade. During the Tang dynasty, for example, the Chinese began to mix steel by mixing cast iron and wrought iron in a blast furnace heated by the burning of coal. The steel was then used to make swords and sickles. The introduction of cotton made it possible to make new kinds of clothes. • 9. Song’s Economy • 10. Tang technology • 9. farming; trading • 10. cast iron (which made swords); introduction of cotton, gun powder (which was used to make explosives, and a primitive flamethrower)

  13. 11. Marco Polo 12. scholar-gentry 11. Italian merchant who traveled to the Song capital Hangzhou 12. political and economic elite of Chinese society Chinese Society: Most significant about Chinese society was the rise of landed gentry. This group controlled much of the land and at the same time produced most of the candidates for the civil service. The scholar-gentry, as this class was known, replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society.

  14. As in other parts of the world, female children were considered less desirable than male children. In times of famine, female infants might be killed if there was not enough food to feed the whole family. When married, she became a part of her husband’s family. In addition, a girl’s parents were expected to provide a dowry to her husband when married. Poor families often sold their daughters to wealthy merchants. • Few Chinese women had any power, an exception was Wu Zhao. • 13. Empress Wu • 14. dowry • 13. one of the only female Chinese emperors • 14. Money, goods, or property a girls parent paid to her future husband

  15. DO NOW • WHAT IS THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION? • WHAT CLASS SYSTEM ARISES AND REPLACES THE ARISTOCRATS IN THE UPPERCLASS AFTER THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION? • HOW WAS THE USE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION A DEPARTURE FROM THE TRADITIONAL WAY OF PLACING YOUNG MEN IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE? • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES OR YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 250-251 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “THE WAY IT WAS”

  16. DO NOW • WHAT IS THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION? • WHAT CLASS SYSTEM ARISES AND REPLACES THE ARISTOCRATS IN THE UPPERCLASS AFTER THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION? • HOW WAS THE USE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION A DEPARTURE FROM THE TRADITIONAL WAY OF PLACING YOUNG MEN IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE? • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES OR YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 274-276 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA: THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION”

  17. 1. Mongols 2. Genghis Khan 3. Temujin 1. were pastoral people who were organized loosely into clans 2. means strong ruler 3. unified the Mongols creating the largest land empire in history Section 2: The Mongols and China:The Mongols brought much of the Eurasian landmass under a single rule, creating the largest land empire in history. Mongol armies traveled both to the west and to the east. Some went as far as central Europe.

  18. After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, the empire began to change. Following Mongol custom, upon the death of the ruling khan, his heirs divided the territory. The once-united empire of Genghis Khan was thus split into several separate territories called khanates, each under the rule of one of his sons. It may be that only the death of Genghis Khan kept the Mongols from attacking western Europe. In 1231, the Mongols attacked Persia and then defeated the Abbasids at Baghdad in 1258. Mongol forces attacked the Song dynasty in China in 1260s. 4. khanates 5. Kublai Khan 4. several separate territories each under the rule of the Genghis Khan’s son 5. conquered the Song and established a new Chinese dynasty called Yuan

  19. 6. Zhu Yuanzhang 6. the son of a peasant, who put together an army, ended the Mongol dynasty, and set up a new dynasty, the Ming dynasty The Mongol dynasty eventually fell victim to the same problems that had plagued other dynasties: too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and growing internal instability. In 1368 Zhu Yuanzahng put together an army and began a new dynasty known as the Ming dynasty.

  20. By the time the Mongols established their dynasty in China, religious preferences in the Chinese court had undergone a number of changes. Confucian principles became the basis for Chinese government during the Han dynasty. By the time of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and Daoism rivaled the influence of Confucianism. Buddhism was brought to China in the 1st century A.D. by merchants and missionaries from India. 7. Buddhism 8. neo-confucianism 7. a philosophy which was introduced to China by merchants and missionaries from India 8. philosophy which teaches that the world is real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes not from withdrawal but from participation in the world

  21. The invention of the printing during the Tang dynasty helped to make literature more readily available and more popular. Art, too, flourished during this period. It was in poetry, above all, that the Chinese of this time best expressed their literary talents. The Tang dynasty is viewed as the great age of poetry in China. Chinese poems celebrated the beauty of nature, the changes of the seasons, and the joys of friendships. They expressed sadness at the shortness of life and the necessity of parting. • 9. Li Bo and Duo Fu • 10. painting • 9. were two of the most popular poets during the Tang dynasty • 10. During the Song and Mongol dynasties landscape painting reached its high point (was influenced by Daoism)

  22. Next to painting in creative accomplishment was the field of ceramics. In particular, Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain—a ceramic made of fine baked clay at very high temperatures. The technique for making porcelain did not reach Europe until the 18th century. • 11. porcelain • Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain, a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures

  23. Art and Research Activity • You are a believer in the philosophy Daoism during ancient China. Create a drawing or a poem reflecting the beliefs of Daoism. You may do some research on the internet to find more information on Daoism. Look on pages 256-257 and read the section Poetry and Painting and Ceramics to get some ideas on the Daoist influence.

  24. DO NOW • Read the section “The Way It Was on page 250-251. What was the civil service examination and why was it so important? Which group of people was it important to? (3-4 minutes)

  25. DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE WAYS IN WHICH DAOISM IS REPRESENTED IN CHINESE ART OF THE SONG AND MONGOL DYNASTIES. • LOOK IN YOUR BOOK AND READ PAGE 257 IN THE SECTION TITLED “PAINTING AND CERAMICS”

  26. DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE WAYS IN WHICH DAOISM IS REPRESENTED IN CHINESE ART OF THE SONG AND MONGOL DYNASTIES. • LOOK IN YOUR BOOK AND READ PAGES 293-295 IN THE SECTION TITLED “ART”

  27. 1. Japan http://www.travel.com.hk/region/asiamap.htm 1. is concentrated on four main islands: Hokkaido, the main island of Honshu, and the two smaller islands of Kyushu and Shikoku Japan is very mountainous; mountains are volcanic; only 11 percent of total land area can be farmed Section 3: Early Japan and Korea

  28. Social Structure • Japanese society was made up of clans. The people were divided between a small aristocratic class (the rulers) and a large population of rice farmers, artisians, and household servants.

  29. Eventually, one ruler of the Yamato clan achieved supremacy over the others and became, in effect, ruler of Japan. Other powerful families would, however, continue to compete for power. Prince Shotoku sent representatives to the Tang capital of China to learn more about how the Chinese organized their government. He then began to create a new centralized system of government in Japan, based roughly on the Chinese model. • 2. ShotokuTaishi • 3. Shotoku’s goal • 2. a Yamato prince, who tried to unify various clans so that the Japanese could resist an invasion by the Chinese • Copied the Chinese central form of government • 3. limit power of aristocrats; enhance ruler’s authority

  30. Nara and Heian Period • During the Nara and Heian period there is a constant battle for power between the centralized government and the aristocrats. Eventually the government of Japan becomes more and more de-centralized. The aristocrats turned to military force as a means of protecting their interest.

  31. 4. samurai 5. Bushido 4. means “those who serve” were warriors hired by the aristocrats 5. A strict warrior code known as (“the way of the warrior”) based on loyalty to his lord Military Protection: A new class of military servants emerged whose purpose was to protect the security and property of their employers. Called the Samurai, these warriors resembled the knights of medieval Europe. Like the knights, the samurai fought on horseback, clad in helmet and armor although a samurai carried a sword and a bow and arrow rather than a lance and shield.

  32. By the end of the 12th century, rivalries among Japanese aristocratic families had led to almost constant civil war. Finally, a powerful noble named MinamotoYoritomo defeated several rivals and set up his power near the modern city of Tokyo. To strengthen the state, he created a more centralized government under a powerful military leader known as the shogun. The Kamkurashogunate, founded by Yoritomo, lasted from 1192 to 1333. • 6. Minamoto Yoritomo • 7. shogun • 6. a powerful noble who created a more centralized government under a powerful military leader known as the shogun • 7. is a general (military leader)

  33. The power of the local aristocrats grew during the 14th and 15th centuries. Heads of noble families, now called daimyo controlled vast landed estates that owed no taxes to the government. As family rivalries continued, the daimyo relied on the samurai for protection, and political power came into the hands of a loose coalition of noble families. Central authority disappeared. Powerful aristocrats in rural areas seized control over large territories, which they ruled as independent lords. Their rivalries caused almost constant warfare. • 8. shogunate • 9. daimyo • 8. a form of government in which the emperor remained ruler in name only, and the shogun exercised the actual power • 9. “great names” heads of noble families who controlled vast landed estates that owed no taxes to the government

  34. DO NOW • HOW HAS JAPAN’S GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED ITS HISTORY? • READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGES 263-264 IN THE SECTION TITLED “THE GEOGRAPHY OF JAPAN”

  35. DO NOW • HOW HAS JAPAN’S GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED ITS HISTORY? • READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGES 299-300 IN THE SECTION TITLED “JAPAN: LAND OF THE RISING SUN”

  36. At first the Shogunate system worked well. The Japanese were fortunate that it did, because the government soon faced its most serious challenge yet from the Mongols. In 1281 Kublai Khan invaded Japan with an army nearly 150,000 strong. Fortunately, for the Japanese, almost the entire fleet was destroyed by a massive typhoon (violent storm). Japan would not again face a foreign invader until American forces landed in Japan in 1945. Fighting the Mongols put a heavy strain on the political system. In 1333, the Kamakura shogunate was overthrown by a group of noble families led by the Ashikaga family.

  37. 10. Onin War 11. kami 12. Shinto 10. a civil war which consisted of aristocratic families fighting for power 11. worshiped spirits whom the Japanese believed resided in the trees, rivers, streams, and mountains 12. meaning (“the Sacred Way” or “the Way of the Gods”) was the state religion of ancient Japan

  38. DO NOW • Descriptive Writing: Imagine you are a samurai living in Japan during the 14th Century. Explain why you became a samurai and describe your duties. • 3-7 sentences

  39. Shinto, however, did not satisfy the spiritual needs of all the Japanese people. Some turned to Buddhism, which Buddhist monks from China brought to Japan during the 6th century A.D. Among the aristocrats in Japan, one sect, known as Zen, became the most popular. Zen beliefs became part of the samurai warrior’s code of behavior. • 13. Zen Buddhism • 14. Chinese Buddhist monks • 13. religion that began to replace the religion Shinto; achieving enlightenment through meditation • 14. brought religion/philosophy to Japan

  40. 15. economy 16. trade 15. mostly farming (wet rice); traded paper, iron casting, paintings, swords 16. during the 11th century occurred mainly between Korea and China Early Japan was mostly a farming society. Its people took advantage of the limited amount of farmland and abundant rainfall to grow wet rice (rice grown in flooded fields). As we have seen, noble families were able to maintain control over most of the land. Trade between regions also grew. Foreign trade, mainly with Korea and China, began during the 11th century. Japan shipped raw materials, paintings, swords, and other manufactured items in return for silk, porcelain, books and copper coins.

  41. 17. early Japanese society 18. later Japanese society 19. aristocratic women 17. women had a certain level of equality to men 18. patriarch 19. were prominent at court; known for their literary talent In early Japan, women may have had a certain level of equality with men. An eighth-century law code, for example, guaranteed the inheritance rights of women. Wives who were abandoned could divorce and remarry. However, later practices make it clear that women were considered subordinate to men. A husband could divorce his wife if she did not produce a male child or if she did not produce a male child or if she committed adultery, talked too much, was jealous, or had a serious illness.

  42. During much of the early history of early Japan, aristocratic men believed that prose fiction was merely “vulgar gossip” and was thus beneath them. Consequently, from the 9th to the 12th centuries, women were the most productive writers of prose fiction in Japanese. Females learned to read and write at home, and they wrote diaries, stories, and novels to pass the time. From this tradition appeared one of the world’s great novels The Tale of Genji. Her novel traces the life of the noble Genji as he tries to remain in favor with those in power. Various aspects of Genji’s personality are explored as he moves from youthful adventures to a life of sadness and compassion in his later years • 20. aristocratic men • 21. MurasakiShikibu • 20. believed prose fiction was vulgar gossip and beneath them • 21. author of The Tale of Genji one of the world’s greatest novels

  43. QUIZ ESSAY #1 1. What was the civil service examination and why was it so important? Which group of people was it important to?

  44. DO NOW • Create a cluster diagram like the one on the white board to the right that clarifies the role of women in early Japan. READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGE 266 IN THE SECTION TITLED “THE ROLE OF WOMEN” (2-3 minutes) ROLE OF WOMEN

  45. DO NOW • Create a cluster diagram like the one on the white board to the right that clarifies the role of women in early Japan. READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGE 308 IN THE SECTION TITLED “ROLE OF WOMEN” (2-3 minutes) ROLE OF WOMEN

  46. 1. Southeast Asia 2. mainland region 3. archipelago 1. lies b/t China and India; has two major parts: mainland region and archipelago 2. extending southward from the Chinese border down to tip of Malay Peninsula 3. chain of islands Section 5: Civilization in Southeast Asia: Between China and India lies the region that is today called Southeast Asia. It has two major parts. Mountain ranges and river valleys and malaria-bearing mosquitoes may help explain why Southeast Asia was never unified under a single government

  47. Southeast Asia is a melting pot of peoples. It contains a vast mixture of races, cultures and regions. Mainland Southeast Asia consists of several north-south mountain ranges. The mountains are densely forested and often infested with malaria-bearing mosquitoes. Thus, the people living in the river valleys were often cut off from one another and had only limited contacts with the people living in the mountains. The geographical barriers encourage the development of separate, distinctive cultures with diverse cultural practices, such as different religions and languages. • 4. geographical barriers • 5. consequences • 6. Formation of States • 4. mountains densely forested/infested with malaria bearing mosquitoes • 5. Southeast Asia was never unified under one form of gov. • 6. A number of organized states developed in Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Angkor, Thailand, Burma, Malay World

  48. The Vietnamese were one of the first peoples in Southeast Asia to develop their own state and their own culture. After the Chinese conquered Vietnam in 111 B.C., t hey tried for centuries to make Vietnam a part of China. However, the Vietnamese clung to their own identity. In the 10th century, they finally overthrew Chinese rule. • 7. Vietnam • 8. Thailand • 7. one of first people to develop a state in southeast Asia; adopted Chinese model of gov. • 8. Thai conquered the Angkor civilization; adopted Indian political practices

  49. 9. agricultural societies 10. trading societies 9. economy largely based on farming 10. depended primarily on trade for income The states of Southeast Asia can be divided into two subgroups: agricultural societies and trading societies. Of course, the agricultural states had some farming. Nevertheless, some states, such as Vietnam, Angkor, Pagan and Sailendra, drew most of their wealth from the land. Others, such as the Sulnate of Melaka, supported themselves strictly through trade. Trade through Southeast Asia expanded after the emergence of states in the area and reached even greater heights after the Muslim conquest of Northern India. The rise in demand for spices also added to the growing volume of trade. As the wealth of Europe and Southeast Asia increased, demand grew for the products of East Asia.

  50. Social StructuresAt the top of the social ladder in most Southeast Asian societies were the hereditary aristocrats. They held both political power and economic wealth. Most aristocrats lived in major cities. Beyond the major cities lived the rest of the population, which consisted of farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants, In most Southeast Asian societies, the majority of people were probably rice farmers who lived at a bare level of subsistence and paid heavy rents or taxes to a landlord or local ruler. Women worked side by side with the men in the fields and often played an active role in trading activities