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Week 5 Presenting Evidence J Lamb/LEAPS. INTRODUCTION. During this session we will cover the following topics:. What is meant by the phrase ‘presenting evidence’ Why we acknowledge others’ work When and where we acknowledge their work

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slide1

Week 5

Presenting Evidence

J Lamb/LEAPS

slide2

INTRODUCTION

During this session we will cover the following topics:

  • What is meant by the phrase ‘presenting evidence’
  • Why we acknowledge others’ work
  • When and where we acknowledge their work
  • How we present evidence within the body of text using the Harvard system of referencing
  • How to prepare a reference list (or bibliography) using the Harvard system
  • What happens when we fail to acknowledge others’ work
slide3

WHAT WE MEAN BY ‘PRESENTING EVIDENCE’

‘Presenting evidence’ involves two processes:

  • As we covered in week 2 (Critical Thinking), to construct a convincing argument you need to provide supporting information (evidence). This evidence could be your own or, more likely, the work of others
  • Where you use someone’s work to support an argument you have to present it in a particular way
  • You also have to use a specific system for showing, in detail, where you found this information
  • Expectations vary between different subjects but the principle of using supporting evidence and acknowledging the source, never changes
slide4

Does it really matter if I acknowledge my sources?

Acknowledging sources matters because…

J LAMB/LEAPS 2010

slide5

Does it really matter if I acknowledge my sources?

Adds credibility to your ideas

Allows the reader to follow up points of interest

Turns opinion into argument

Acknowledging sources matters because…

‘Academic courtesy’

You’ll be assessed on it!

Shows the marker you’ve carried out research

Avoids attracting suspicion of plagiarism

J LAMB/LEAPS 2010

slide6

WHEN YOU MIGHT PRESENT OTHERS’ WORK AS EVIDENCE

When do you think you might use others’ work to support your ideas?

  • in written assignments e.g. essays, reports
  • during presentations
  • in seminars, tutorial discussion or any other occasion when you wish to turn an opinion into an argument
  • dduring exams?
slide7

Types of information to acknowledge

Print media

Websites and other online sources

Text books

Acknowledge these sources…

TV and radio

Speeches, interviews

Government reports and stats.

Academic journals and studies

J LAMB/LEAPS 2010

slide8

WHEN YOU MIGHT PRESENT OTHERS’ WORK AS EVIDENCE

You’ll acknowledge information during and at the end of assignments

  • You might reproduce short passages of text, dialogue (e.g. part of a speech), statistics or diagrams in written work or on presentation slides = direct quotation in the text
  • You might present some of the same information but rewritten in your own words = indirect quotation in the text
  • You might acknowledge full details of these sources in a reference list at the end of your work
  • You might list all the sources that informed your work even if you didn’t use the information in your response, in a bibliography at the end of your work
slide9

Or…

In her study Forecasts for Fashion (2008) Hepburn argues that the

fashion industry is in decline…

Or…

Whereas some experts believe the fashion industry is stable (Peppard,

2007) others feel it is experiencing a downturn (Hepburn, 2008).

HARVARD REFERENCING: INDIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

You can acknowledge someone’s viewpoint in your text without having to use a direct quotation:

Recent evidence (Hepburn, 2008) suggests that the fashion industry

is in decline…

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…and where there are more than two authors:

Others point towards the cyclical nature of the European fashion retail

industry (Thomson et al, 1999)

…and where the source is an organisation rather than an individual:

Business leaders feel that now is a good time to invest (Confederation of

Cosmetic Retailers, 2008)

HARVARD REFERENCING: INDIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

Presenting an overall viewpoint where there are two authors:

The Paris fashion industry has remained largely unaffected by global

trends in financial markets (Dunckel & Godin, 2007).

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Or…

Figures outlined at the time by Smith (2004, p.21) suggest that…

Or…

In the study The Internet and the High Street (Smith, 2004, p.21) it is argued

that….

HARVARD REFERENCING: INDIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

On other occasions you might want to draw the reader’s attention to a specific part of an information source:

According to Smith (2004, p.21) the availability to purchase online reduced

the power of the high street retailers, accounting for a 13% drop in year-on-

year sales.

slide12

Or where you wish to cite more than one sentence:

While Peppard (2007) pointed towards general stability, Hepburn (2008)

believes that:

There is clear evidence that the fashion boom has passed and that the industry is experiencing decline. There is a wealth of statistical and anecdotal evidence pointing towards this downturn.

HARVARD REFERENCING: DIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

Sometimes you might find it useful to use a direct quotation to emphasise a specific point or to define a point:

In her 2008 report Forecasts for Fashion, Hepburn argues that ‘there is

undisputable evidence that the boom has passed and that the overall

industry is experiencing decline.’

slide13

Or you might wish to quote part of a report by an organisation:

In its 1997 annual report, Hartley Fashion House predicted ‘massive and

wholesale changes to the relationship between customers and retailers due

to the advent of the internet.’

HARVARD REFERENCING: QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

There might be occasions where you want to express a view put forward jointly by two authors:

In their 1996 survey Brown & Clark showed that, ‘fashion is more to

do with conforming to society’s expectations than making an individual

Statement’

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HARVARD REFERENCING: INDIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

Some academic texts contain chapters by a number of different authors. You need to acknowledge the source of the information and the book’s author:

In A New Perspective on World Fashion (Sutton, 2004) Simpson claims

that independent retailers will find it increasingly difficult to compete with

the major chains in the coming years

Or…

In future it will be hard for independent retailers to compete with major

chains (Simpson in Sutton, 2004)

slide15

Or you might want to directly quote part of an interview:

In a recent interview (Times Online, 2008) Jones argued that “the cause...”

The same could apply for a radio or television interview:

Speaking on the Today programme (BBC, 2008) Jones argued “the…”

When quoting someone speaking at a conference it might appear like this:

Addressing the audience at the Convention for Fashion Designers, Jones

(2008) Suggested that “the reason we have the most creative people is…”

HARVARD REFERENCING: DIRECT QUOTATION IN THE TEXT

You might cite someone writing in a newspaper:

Writing in The Times, Young (2003) suggested that…

slide16

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Including the full detail of the source within your text would break up the flow of your work therefore you’ll complete a reference list at the back of your essay, report etc.

  • Reference lists appear at the end of your work and list, in full detail, where you found each of the sources you made a direct reference to in your work.
  • Your academic department might ask that a reference list that excludes background reading that, although useful, you did not cite in your work
  • Your sources should be listed alphabetically (not grouped by type or subject)

However…different departments take different approaches – some ask you to

include full details of references at the bottom of page where the source was

used, perhaps with a bibliography at the end of the report/essay.

slide17

Where you have referred to a later edition of the same book:

Surname, Initial. (Year published) Title of book in italics. Edition where not the

first edition. Place of publication: Publishing company.

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Where you have referred to information in a book with a single author:

Surname, Initial. (Year published) Title of book in italics. Edition where

not the first edition. Place of publication: Publishing company.

James, D. (2000) The big book of birds. Denningston: Denningston University

Press.

James , D. (2000) The Big book about Studying. 2nd edn. Denningston:

Denningston University Press

slide18

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

A quick exercise…

I am the author. My book is called ‘From Portsmouth to Paradise: travels with a

football anorak’. My book is widely available thanks to my publisher Janefield

Street Press, whose office is based in Glasgow. The version that you’ll pick up in

all good bookstores (although why you’d want to…) is the second edition which

I updated in 2007.

Surname, Initial. (Year published) Title of book in italics. Edition where not

the first edition. Place of publication: Publishing company.

Lamb , J. (2007) From Portsmouth to Paradise: travels with a football anorak.

2nd edn. Glasgow: Janefield Street Press.

slide19

Where you have cited someone who contributes a chapter in a book:

Surname of contributor, Initial. (Year published) ‘Title of chapter cited’, in

Surname of Editor, Initial. (ed for editor) Title of book in italics. Place of

publication: Publisher: chapter pages.

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Where you cited a book with more than one author:

Surname, Initial & Surname, Initial. (Year published) Title of book in italics.

Edition where not the first edition. Place of publication: Publishing company.

Davis, S. & Hughes, R. (2001) The science of ornithology: a guide for beginners.

Portsmouth. Portsmouth Central Publishing.

Johnson, G. (2005) ‘Domestic bird observation’, in Jordan, J. (ed.) British

Birdlife. London: Camden University Press: pp.33-46.

slide20

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Where you have referred to information in an a newspaper article

Article author’s surname, Initial. (Year article published) ‘Title of newspaper

article’ Newspaper that article appeared within in italics, day and month, page.

Garner, A. (1992) ‘Brent geese put paid to plans for new football ground’ The

Hampshire Chronicle, 18 May, p6.

Where you have referred to an article in a journal:

Article author’s surname, Initial. (Year article published) ‘Title of article’,

Journal that article appeared within in italics, Volume number, part number,

pages of article.

Nugent, D. (2004) ‘Saying a prayer for our birds of prey’ Issues in ecological

conservation, 12 (4), pp.88-103.

slide21

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Where you have cited an internet site:

Article author’s surname, Initial. (Year article published) Title of internet site.

Available at: http://www.url-location/ (Year information published) (Accessed:

date that you accessed the site including day, month, year).

Nelson, H. (2007) Sentinel Unlimited. Available at:

http://www.sentinelfictionalreportage/news/item1939.htm/ (Accessed: 22

December 2007).

Where you have cited a web source with no author:

http://www.url-location/ (Year information published) (Accessed: date

that you accessed the site for the information including day, month, year).

http://www.fictitiousornithologyreferences.com/wmblywnrs.html (2008).

(Accessed: 24 June 2008).

slide22

PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST (USING HARVARD)

Your reference list will be compiled alphabetically:

Garner, A. (1992) ‘Brent geese put paid to plans for new football ground’ The Hampshire

Chronicle, 18 May, p6.

http://www.fictitiousornithologyreferences.com/wmblywnrs.html (2008). (Accessed: 24 June

2008).

James, D. (2000) The Big book of birds. Denningston: Denningston University Press.

Nelson, H. (2007) Sentinel Unlimited. Available at:

http://www.sentinelfictionalreportage/news/item1939.htm/ (Accessed: 22 December 2007).

Nugent, D. (2004) ‘Saying a prayer for our birds of prey’ Issues in ecological

conservation, 12 (4), pp.88-103.

slide23

PREPARING A BIBLIOGRAPHY

You won’t always be asked to prepare a bibliography - expectations will vary between academic departments. Nevertheless, in general it is:

‘A list of all the sources that you consulted for your work, arranged

alphabetically by author’s last name, or when there is no author, by title.’

Richard Pears and Graham Shields,

Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism (2004)

  • Your bibliography lists all the information that contributed towards your work, even if you didn’t quote the source
  • It provides the reader with an indication of background reading that informed your thinking
  • It offers a marker an insight into the quality of your research
slide24

WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU DON’T ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCES

What might the consequences be for students who fail to acknowledge the evidence they use in their work?

  • they might miss out on marks that are intended for correct referencing
  • their arguments will appear to be unsupported and carry less weight (which again leads to ‘lost marks’)
  • they give the marker/audience the impression of a student who is lazy, lacks attention to detail, is poorly organised or generally doesn’t care for their studies
  • the student might to attract accusations of plagiarism…
slide25

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM

To begin, what is plagiarism?

  • using someone’s else’s work to support your own argument but neglecting to acknowledge the original source or author
  • taking someone else’s work and deliberately passing it off as your own
  • downloading assignments for a fee
  • paying someone else to complete an assignment for you

‘Plagiarism is using the work of others without acknowledging your source of

information or inspiration. Even if you change words or sentences you have

‘borrowed’ or put them in a different order, the result is still plagiarism.’

Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (2003)

slide26

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM

  • I take ideas from journals and, although I don’t acknowledge the source, I will always write
  • it into my own words
  • Sometimes, a friend and I will work together on an assignment. Once we’ve cracked it we’ll write up our answers separately.
slide27

How do staff spot plagiarism in undergraduate work?

Sudden change in quality of student’s arguments

Student’s writing style or ‘voice’ fluctuates

‘Americanisms’

Plagiarism is

detected by…

A number of students submit similar assignments

Detection software e.g. Turnitin

Marker has read the original source…or wrote it!

Regular use of complex terminology in a single passage of text

J LAMB/LEAPS 2010

slide28

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM

What are the consequences for those found guilty of plagiarism?

“Whole paragraphs are copied unchanged, or even whole essays. When such

practices are detected, students can find themselves in serious difficulties,

suffering heavy cuts in marks, or even being thrown off their course.”

Andrew Northedge, The Good Study Guide (2005)

Ignorance isn’t a defence

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/student-expelled-for-internet-plagiarism-565008.html

Penalty!

http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=412088&c=1

Misconduct

http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/information-services/services/learning-technology/assessment/plagiarism/further-assistance

Turn it in

http://www.submit.ac.uk/static_jisc/ac_uk_index.html

slide29

WHY DO STUDENTS PLAGIARISE?

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/jun/21/mentalhealth.health/

http://www.rajpersaud.com/

http://www.primarytimes.net/images/RajPersaud.jpg

slide30

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM

How to avoid accidental plagiarism

  • avoid the temptation to do lazy internet research
  • record references as you go along
  • take care when copying and pasting electronically
  • make your own recording system to distinguish between your own note making and copying directly from a source – different coloured pen?
  • effective time management
  • seek guidance and make sure you know the department-specific expectations for using evidence: ignorance is not a defence!
slide31

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

So, we’ve now seen that:

  • there are a range of good reasons why you need to acknowledge others’ work or ideas – not least that doing so will gain you extra marks
  • students are expected to acknowledge information in a particular way…and expectations may vary from one department to another
  • the penalties can be severe for those who ignore guidelines on acknowledging others’ work
  • it might not be particularly exciting, but the ability to acknowledge sources correctly is a key weapon in the the effective student’s armoury
  • The first step in acquiring this skill is to acknowledge its significance…and to then try your hand at it
slide32

INFORMATION SOURCES AND FURTHER READING

Useful referencing guides

  • http://www.shef.ac.uk/library/libdocs/hsl-dvc1.pdf
  • http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm?harvard_id=63#63/

Reference list

Cottrell, S. (2003) The study skills handbook. 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave

Macmillan.

Northedge, A. (2005) The good study guide. Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Pears, R. & Shields, S. (2005) Cite them right: the essential guide to

referencing and plagiarism. 2nd edn.Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.