Close Reading Ms Ness
General Tips • Note the number of marks that the question is worth. • This gives you an indication of how much to write and the depth required. • Note the question code. • Identify the question type.
Question Codes • Understanding • Analysis • Evaluation
Understanding • Designed to test whether you understood the basic meaning of the passage. • You will be asked to gather pieces of information which you must put in your own words. • It should always be put in plain language. • It is essential that you do not lift whole phrases or sentences from the original, these will not be awarded any marks. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis • Analysis • Word choice • Imagery Tone • Structure • Word Choice • Connotation • The connotations of a word is the suggestive meaning of the word. ASSOCIATIONS - use the context to drive these associations. • Denotation • The denotation of a word is its literal meaning, basic and plain meaning.
Figures of Speech • Alliteration: A series of words that begin with the same sound.. • Antithesis: The juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas. (conceptual opposition. e.g the two characters were antithetical) • Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds • Consonance: The repetition of consonant sounds. • Ellipsis: Omission of words • Parenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentence thus providing additional information. • Pun: When a word or phrase is used in two different senses. • Sibilance: Repetition of letter ‘s’. • Allegory: Allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract idea such as charity, greed, or envy.Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. ‘Animal Farm’. • Allusion: An indirect reference to another work of literature or art. • Anthropomorphism / Personification: Applying human qualities to inanimate objects , animals or natural phenomena.
Figures of Speech • Archaism: Using an obsolete, archaic word. • Hyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis. • Irony: Use of a word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning. • Malapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds similar. • Metaphor: A figure of speech wherein a comparison made between two unlike qualities in which on thing is said to be something it literally cannot be. • Onomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meaning. • Oxymoron: Using two terms together, that normally contradict each other. (different from antithesis as it relates to lexical items word level) • Pathetic fallacy: A literary device wherein something non-human found in nature performs as though from human feeling or motivation.
Figures of Speech • Rhetorical question: Asking a question not for the sake of getting a response but for asserting something. • Simile: An explicit comparison between two things using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. • Litotes: Opposite of hyperbole. Deliberate understatement. • Circumlocution: To state something in a long, roundabout way rather than addressing the subject simply and directly. • Euphemism: A way of making an unwelcome truth seem less harsh or unpleasant. • Neologism: Coining of a new word. • Cliché: An expression which at one time might have been original but has now become overused.
Literal & Figurative Language • Literal: the words being used mean exactly what they say. • Figurative: the words being used do not mean exactly what they say. The physical objects are not exactly the real subject of discussion but are brought in by way of comparison.
Imagery • There are six methods with which a writer can create imagery: • Simile • Metaphor • Personification • Symbolism • Metonymy • Synecdoche
Metonymy • Metonymy replace one object with another which is related to or associated with it in some way. • E.g. He was fond of the bottle. • The thing inside it has been replaced by the thing. The boy tickled the ivory. • The object itself has been replaced by what it is made of. • It works by association. • Synecdoche • The substitution of the part for the whole, or the whole for the part. • E.g. a thousand head of cattle. use your head to figure it out. (brain)
Imagery • Simile • An explicit comparison between two things. • Metaphor • A word or phrase is applied to an object or action that it does not literally apply in order to imply a resemblance. • Personification • To give human characteristics to a thing or abstraction. • Symbolism • The representation of something by the use of symbols. • Symbol • Something that represents or stands for something else, usually an object used to represent something abstract.
Types of Sentence • A sentence is a group of words which contains a verb and makes complete sense. • 5 types of sentence • A statement. Most sentences are statements. Not interesting. Does not require comment. • A question. Rhetorical question :Clarify or reinforce • An exclamation. Used to convey a tone of amazement, shock or strong emotion.
Types of Sentence • A Command Used in instructions and in writing aiming to persuade. • A minor sentence. Where the verb is omitted for dramatic effect. Usually the verb ‘to be’ E.g. He looked down the road. Nothing coming. Reasons for using minor sentences. • Create impact, suspense, or urgency • Suggest informality • Abbreviations.
Paragraphing • Short paragraphs are used to have an instant impact, or to be particularly easy to understand. • Can also have an introductory function. • A single sentence paragraph may throw emphasis onto a statement or idea. It may be used to slow action and create suspense. Or Clarify. Or Reinforce.
Punctuation • Inverted commas “ “ Four main purposes. a) Indicate the title of something. E.g. play, book etc. b) For spoken words. c) For quotations. d) To mark off an individual word or phrase from the rest of the sentence. E.g. If a word from a foreign language is used. If a word is used in a context that deviates from its normal definition.
Punctuation • Lists or series • Commas do not make a list. • A number of items make a list, and the separation between these items is signalled by a comma or semi-colon. • You need to provide specific comment about what is being listed, if this highlights anything and what the effect of the listing is.
Colon : • Four main purposes. 1. Introduce a quotation. 2. Introduce a list. 3. Introduce an explanation. 4. Introduce an expansion of the previous statement.
Semi-colon ; • Two main purposes. • It often comes between two statements which are closely connected, or which balance or contrast one another. • Used to separate a list of phrases.
A Single Dash - • Three main purposes. • Used to add an extra piece of information very much as a colon does. • Used to indicate a breaking off in a sentence. • A series of dashes might be used informally to convey an outpouring of ideas or emotions.
Two Dashes or Two Commas or Two Brackets • Mark off an extra, non-essential piece of information in the middle of a sentence. A technique known as parenthesis. • The information is only grammatically non-essential. • It does provide additional information. • You need to identify the nature of the information that is in parenthesis. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Use of ‘and’ at the beginning of the sentence • ‘And’ at the beginning of a sentence is always used deliberately to isolate and give prominence to an additional point the writer wants to make. • It ought grammatically to be part of the previous sentence. • In your answer there has to be an identification of what is made prominent and for what purpose. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Sentence Patterns • Many sentences depend for their effect on the order in which their component parts are placed. • Inversion. Normal order. The subject comes first followed by the words which tell us more about the subject (the predicate). ‘Flames leapt up and up’ Occasionally, this order is reversed and this alters the emphasis of the sentence. ‘Up and up leapt the flames.’ Tends to be used in shorter sentences.
Sentence Patterns • Repetition or Anaphora A writer may decide to repeat certain word patterns to achieve a particular purpose. E.g. ‘We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. Winston Churchill 1940 Effect:
Sentence Patterns • Climax and Anti-climax Climax: placing a number of items in ascending order, with the most important kept till last. Anti-climax: When the author builds up to something which in fact does not come.
Sentence Patterns • Antithesis. Arranging ideas within a sentence balancing opposites together to create a contrast. E.g. Those that I fight I do not hate. Those that I guard I do not love. The opposition is conceptual not lexical.
Tone • Tone of the narrative voice. • Relates to the way in which anything is said. It refers to a particular attitude or feeling conveyed by the writer. • Tone is created through word choice, imagery and language. • Examples: • Flippant: showing an irreverent attitude to something normally taken seriously. • Humorous: funny / entertaining. • Conversational: chatty / friendly. • Effusive: over the top, exaggerated. • Irony: Is the name given to the figure of speech where an author says the opposite of what they really mean. Tongue in cheek is a form of irony, the writer sounds serious, but there will be a sense of ridicule. • Satirical: An extreme form of irony. Holding a subject up to ridicule in order to attack it.
Mood • Character & setting. 1. An identification of an appropriate mood. 2. Evidence from the text to support your choice. 3. A comment on how the mood is created. • Analyse using the following three steps 1. An identification of an appropriate mood. 2. Evidence from the text to support your choice. 3. A comment on how the mood is created. • Word choice • Imagery • Language
Atmosphere • Just as in tone you are looking for the ‘voice’ in which something is said. • In atmosphere you are looking for some sort of involvement of the senses. 1. Sight 2. Sound 3. Smell 4. Taste 5. Feel • Sensory information
Tone, Mood & Atmosphere • Atmosphere Setting Macro • Mood • Tone Voice Micro
Question Types • Understanding • Context • Own words • Link • Analysis • General analysis / language • Contrast • Word choice • Imagery • Structure / punctuation • Tone • Sound techniques
Question Types • Evaluation • General evaluation • Effectiveness of a conclusion • Questions on both passages • Style • Content
Understanding • Context • Define or give the meaning of the word or phrase. • Identify and quote the context clues • 2 marks = 1 piece of evidence • 3 marks = 2 pieces of evidence • Explain how it helped you arrive at the definition / meaning. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Understanding • Own words • Find the answer (underline). • Put in own words (simplify). • Number of marks indicates the number of answers required. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Understanding • Link • Identify part of the sentence that links back. • Identify the topic that it links back to. • Identify the part of the sentence that links forward. • Identify the topic that it links forward to. • Some link question may only be looking for a link back or forward (1/2 link).
Analysis • General Analysis / Language • Word choice • Imagery • Structure / punctuation • Tone
Analysis • Word Choice • Identify word. • Give connotations. • The number of marks gives an indication of the number of words requiring analysis. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis • Contrast • Contrasting items have a suggestion of ‘opposite’. • Identify something positive and something negative. • Explain difference (use the context to do this). • Why are these items contrasted, which feature is being highlighted? • Do not simply say one is positive and the other negative. • CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis • Imagery • Identify image. • Explain literal meaning / root. • What is the root of the image? • ‘A is literally • In what way are the two similar • Explain connection to writer’s point. • Complex example • ‘In fact, modern Westerners are like thirsty people drinking from a muddy puddle on the banks of a great river of clear water, as if they simply had not noticed the river’s existence, or did not know that they could drink from it. The river in question is philosophy.’ 4 mark deconstruction
Analysis • Structure / Punctuation • Punctuation ; semi-colon : colon ‘ ‘ inverted commas , comma ? question mark ! exclamation mark • Dash • - , , parenthesis ( ) • Sentence Types • Minor • Question (rhetorical) • Exclamation • Command • Repetition • Long Sentences • Short sentences
Analysis • Tone • Identify the tone • Analyse: Word choice Structure / Punctuation Imagery Remember tone is connected to the purpose of the piece. E.g purpose = entertain tone = irony
Analysis • Sound techniques • Onomatopoeia • Alliteration • Assonance • Sibilance • Identify the technique • Identify the sound • Explain the reason for utilisation • E.g /s/ = evil • Biblical source: snake = evil • Context is all.
Evaluation • General Evaluation • Requires analysis of some or all of the following areas: • Word choice • Imagery • Structure / Punctuation • Tone • ‘This is effective because …’ • Avoid criticism except in the case of clichés.
Evaluation • Effectiveness of a conclusion (sentence or paragraph) • Identify the function; • To summarise • Clarify writer’s stance • Demonstrate an understanding of the sentence or paragraph (summarise the main points in your own words). • ‘This is effective because…’
Evaluation • Questions on both passages. • Style • Use the answers that you have already written to help support your line of argument - analysis questions. • To evaluate style you can analyse • Word choice • Imagery Provide specific • Structure / punctuation examples • Tone • Arguments are supported by facts and data • Dates Quote & explain how • Statistics this enhances • Specific locations / names reliability • You should also consider the purpose of the piece of writing. • The conclusion should reinforce your choice of passage preference and summarise the justification.
Evaluation • Questions on both passages. • Content • Areas to consider • The passage offers solutions, not just identifies problems. • Which passage enhances your understanding. • Presents 1 or both sides of an argument. • Provide evidence of this through a summary of the main points. • Arguments are supported by facts and data • Dates Quote & explain how • Statistics this enhances • Specific locations / names reliability • Entertaining / humorous / uses anecdotes • Consider the purpose of the writing. • The conclusion should reiterate the passage preference and summarise the justification. • You must demonstrate a clear and concise understanding of both passages. Summarise the main points and identify the writer’s stance.
Putting it into Practice 2001 Close Reading Muhammed Ali
In Your Own Words • Question 5 Summarise the main reasons for "mainstream America's rejection" of Muhammed Ali. You should refer to lines 81 -104 in your answer and use your own words as far as possible. 5U