definitions n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Definitions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Definitions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Definitions. Mycologists --scientists who study fungi Mycology- -scientific discipline dealing with fungi Mycoses --diseases caused in animals by fungi . What is a fungus? .

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Definitions' - oma

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
  • Mycologists--scientists who study fungi
  • Mycology--scientific discipline dealing with fungi
  • Mycoses--diseases caused in animals by fungi
what is a fungus
What is a fungus?
  • A eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism devoid of chlorophyll that obtains its nutrients by absorption, and reproduces by spores.
  • The primary carbohydrate storage product of fungi is glycogen.
  • Most fungi have a thallus composed of hyphae (sing. hypha) that elongate by tip growth
the characteristics of fungi
The Characteristics of Fungi
  • Fungi are NOT plants
  • Hyphae = tubular units of construction
  • Heterotrophic by absorption
  • Reproduce by spores
  • Ecologically pivotal roles

Hard wall of chitin

Cross walls may form compartments (± cells)


Grow at tips

heterotrophic by absorption
Heterotrophic by Absorption
  • Fungi get carbon from organic sources
  • Hyphal tips release enzymes
  • Enzymatic breakdown of substrate
  • Products diffuse back into hyphae

Enzymatic breakdown

Nucleus hangs back

and “directs”



Product diffuses back

into hypha and is used

hyphal growth
Hyphal growth
  • Hyphae grow from their tips
  • Mycelium = extensive, feeding web of hyphae
  • Mycelia are the ecologically active bodies of fungi

This wall is rigid

Only the tip wall is plastic and stretches

hyphal growth from spore
Hyphal growth from spore




reproduce by spores
Reproduce by spores
  • Spores are reproductive cells
    • Sexual
    • Asexual
  • Formed:
    • Directly on hyphae
    • Inside sporangia
    • Fruiting bodies

Pilobolus sporangia

Penicillium hyphae

Amanita fruiting body

fungi are ancient
Fungi are ancient
  • Major fungal lineages are ancient, perhaps emerging one billion years ago
  • Fungi were present before the emergence of animals and vascular plants
old and modern classification
Old and Modern Classification
  • Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) the “Father of Taxonomy”
    • “ Minerals exist; plants exist and live; animals exist, live and sense.”
    • Plants without obvious sexual organs were classified in Class Cryptogamia (lichens, fungi, mosses, ferns)
  • Fungi are primitive (asli) plants under this classification of organisms.

Old Classification

The Five kingdom system

  • Eukarya (includes all organism with a nucleus & membrane bound organelles)
  • Plants and Animals are fairly obvious (ketara)
  • Fungi, are very distinct (berlainan) from the other kingdoms
  • Kingdom Protista is a “dumping ground” for organisms that don’t fit into the other eukaryotic kingdoms

(Whittaker, 1969)

modern classification
Modern Classification
  • At least 7 kingdoms are now recognized:
    • Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Animalia, Plantae, Eumycota, Stramenopila (Chromista), Protoctista (Protozoa, Protista)
systems of classifying fungi
Systems of classifying fungi

1) 1860

HOGG proposed the term PROTOCTISTA - fungi and neither

Plant or Animal.

This kingdom composed mostly of unicellular organisms.

The kingdom was later replaced by 2 kingdoms – MYCOTA &

MONERA (prokaryotes) and PROTOCTISTA(eukaryotes).

2) 1947

Microscopes enable study of complex structural characteristics.

New classification (WOLF & WOLF, 1947)

3) 1969

Fungi in its own kingdom by WHITTAKER – FUNGI KINGDOM.

systems of classifying fungi1
Systems of classifying fungi

4) 1998

Modification by MARGUILIS & SCHWARTZ – used characteristics

(structure & function).

  • MONERA: Prokaryotes – bacteria, actinomycetes, blue-green algae.
  • PROTOCTISTA: Eukaryotes – protozoa and other unicellular and colonial organisms such as water moulds, slime moulds and slime nets.
  • FUNGI : Eukaryotes – organisms that lack flagella that develop from spores such as yeast, molds, rusts and mushrooms.
  • PLANTAE: Eukaryotes – organisms that develop from embryos such as liverworts, mosses and vascular plants.
  • ANIMALIA: Eukaryotes – organisms that develop from a blastula (hollow ball of cells) such a sponges, worms, arthropods and mammals.
marguilis schwartz 1998

Classify the fungi into 3 phyla : Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

Chytrids (CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA) in the Kingdom Proctista.

Deuteromycota with their closest relatives that are the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

Lichen with the Phylum Ascomycota.

other classifications
Other classifications

MOORE, 1998 (quoted from Pfieffer, M., et al., 2001) states that plants, animals and fungi can be separated based on how they obtain energy.

Plants possess (memiliki) chloroplasts as photosynthetic structures used to produce food.

Animals possess mitochondria used for internalized digestion.

Fungi excrete enzymes into the food source they live within external digestion.

classification using molecular research techniques
Classification using molecular research techniques

BALDAUF & PALMER (1993), WAINWRIGHT et al. (1993) and HASEGAWA et al (1993)

The above current schemes agree that the

three major kingdoms are separated and

thereby confirmed that there are no

connection between the fungi-plant













Eukaryocyte *








Eukaryocyte *




question 2
Question 2

Fill in the blanks of the systematic of classification

1) Kingdom

2) Division / Phylum

3) ___________

4) Order

5) ___________

6) Tribe

7) ___________

8) Species

  • Sometimes there are subdivisions and subclasses
Hierarchical Classification

Kingdom Fungi

Phylum Basidiomycota

Class Basidiomycetes

Order Agaricales

Family Agaricaceae

Genus Agaricus


Agaricus campestris L.

f ungus versus f ungi
Fungus versus Fungi
  • “Fungus” is used inclusively for a heterogenous group of organisms that have traditionally been studied by mycologists
  • “Fungi” refers to the organisms in the Kingdom Fungi, the true fungi, also called the “Eumycota”
how are fungi named
How are fungi named?
  • To determine the correct name for a taxon, certain steps must be followed, including:
    • Effective publication
    • Valid publication
      • Description or diagnosis in Latin
      • Clear indication of rank
      • Designated type
  • Nomenclature: the “allocation (pemberian bahagian) of scientific names to the units a systematist considers to merit formal recognition.” (Hawksworth et al., 1995. The Dictionary of the Fungi). 
  • The nomenclature of fungi is governed by the International Code for Botanical Nomenclature, as adopted by the International Botanical Congress.
how many species of fungi exist
How many species of fungi exist?

- 80,000 species of fungi described

- 1,700 new species described each year

how many species of fungi exist1
How many species of fungi exist?

- 80,000 species of fungi described

- 1,700 new species described each year

reasons why it is not easy to classify fungi
Reasons why it is not easy to classify fungi

Fungi comprise (mengandungi) of a broad number of organisms.

Fungi have various forms depending on the environment and conditions in which they grow.

Many terms being used to describe the morphological structures of fungi.


Basic Characteristics and Life Cycles

  • Ascomycota (inc.Deuteromycetes)
  • Basidiomycota
  • Zygomycota
  • Mitosporic Fungi (Fungi Imperfecti)
ascomycota sac fungi
Ascomycota – “sac fungi”
  • Teleomorphic fungi
    • Produce sexual and asexual spores
  • Sex. – asci
  • Asex. – common
  • Cup fungi, morels, truffles
  • Important plant parasites & saprobes
  • Yeast - Saccharomyces
  • Septate
  • Most lichens

A cluster of asci with spores inside

basidiomycota club fungi
Basidiomycota – “club fungi”
  • Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores
  • Sex – basidia
  • Asex – not so common
  • Long-lived dikaryotic mycelia
  • Rusts & smuts – primitive plant parasites
  • Septate
  • Mushrooms, polypores, puffballs
  • Enzymes decompose wood
  • Mycorrhizas

SEM of basidia and spores

zygomycota zygote fungi
Zygomycota – “zygote fungi”
  • Conjugation fungi
  • Coenocytic
  • Sex - zygosporangia
  • Asex - common
  • Produce sporangiospores and zygospores
  • Hyphae have no cross walls
  • Grow rapidly
    • Rhizopus, Mucor (opportunistic, systemic mycoses)
  • Mycorrhizas

Fig 31.6 Rhizopus on strawberries

true fungi
True Fungi
  • Chytridiomycota – “chytrids”- Classified in CMR as true fungi (because of their molecular relationships)
  • Simple fungi
  • Produce motile spores
  • Mostly saprobes and parasites in aquatic habitats
  • Could just as well be Protists

Fig 31.5 Chytridium growing on spores


True Fungi versus Slime Moulds

True fungi:

  • those that are hyphal
  • possess cell walls throughout most of their life cycle
  • are exclusively absorptive in their nutrition.

Slime moulds:

- those that do not form hyphae

- lack cell walls during the phase that they obtain

nutrients and grow

  • are capable of ingesting nutrients by phagocytosis. So they are more common to Protista although they produce fruiting bodies like fungi.
  • The most studied of them are the cellular slime moulds and theplasmodialslime moulds or Myxomycetes.

The fungus can never be classified in

Plantae or Animalia?