Public Policy By: Alice Liao Eden Wang John Wong Stephen Ngan
1. Introduction • Bill is introduced by a member and assigned to a committee, which is usually refers it to a subcommittee 2. Committees • Subcommittee- Studies, hold hearings and makes revisions; if approved, it goes to full committee • Committee- Full committee may amend or rewrite the bill, before sending to House/Senate for approval; if approved, the bill is reported to full Senate or House • Leadership-Senate leaders of both parties schedule Senate debate on the bill. Rules Committee issues a debate on the house floor and sends the bill to the full house.
3. Floor Action • Bill is debated by full House/Senate, amendments are offered, and a vote is taken. • If the bill passes in a different version from that passed in the House/Senate it is sent to a conference committee 4. Conference Committee • Composed of members of both House and Senate • Differences in the bills are solved • Results in a compromise bill, and is returned to both House and Senate for a vote
5. Presidential Decision • President may sign or veto the bill • Congress may override a veto by a two-thirds vote in both house and senate
Because of Limited time and resources, policy makers have to choose which problems to act on • Effected by: • Protest Activity • Media Attention • Electoral Benefit- majority support in polls • Historical Achievement
Formulation of policy proposals • Their initiation and development • By policy planning organizations, interest groups, the executive or legislative branches of government
The Court • The court will interpret the new policy to determine if it is constitutional or not. • If it is constitutional the policy will be passed to a bureaucracy. • If it is unconstitutional the policy will be rejected and a new policy will have to be created.
Bureaucracy • A bureaucracy would be appointed to implement the know policy. • It is also their responsibility to oversee the new policy so that it is followed. • They have the ability to fill in holes in the policy that the Judicial and Legislative branch fail to address.
Political Institutions and Federalism • President and Congress have to work together to pass turn a bill into a law. • The bill can only become a law through a certain process: • Bill introduction -> Committee action -> Floor action -> Conference action -> Presidential decision
Political Parties • Members of political parties tend to follow their party’s stance on issues • Some voters are loyal to the party they support and will cast their vote for candidates based on which political • party the candidates are in. • Political parties have to compete with each other to gain voter support, so they try to • create legislations that please voters.
Lobbyists and Interest Groups • Lobbyists represent interests of their organization • Lobbyists provide information and financial aid to legislators • Lobbyists encourages citizens to pressure legislators on certain issues
Public Opinions • Public opinions influence how political leaders make their polities. • Political leaders try to take the same stance as the majority of the voters to try and win votes.
Elections • Congressmen uses casework and adding pork barrel to legislations to win votes • Political leaders take positions on certain issues to try and win votes • Political leaders try to win the favor of organizations and individuals for campaign funds.
Policy Networks • Presidents try to control bureaucracy by: • Appointing the head of agencies • Issue executive orders to agencies • Changing an agency’s budget • Congress try to control bureaucracy by: • Influencing the presidents’ appointments of the head of agencies • Changing an agency’s budget • Holding hearings • Rewriting legislations • Bureaucracy, congressional subcommittees, and interest groups from iron triangles • They all influence policy making