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Public Policy. Public Policy. Authoritative decisions – government What is the relationship between the policy and the desired goal or “outcome”? Connection between interest articulation and public policy? Evaluation of outcomes – asking the normative questions. Government and What it Does.

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public policy2
Public Policy
  • Authoritative decisions – government
  • What is the relationship between the policy and the desired goal or “outcome”?
  • Connection between interest articulation and public policy?
  • Evaluation of outcomes – asking the normative questions.
government and what it does
Government and What it Does
  • Produce goods and services:
  • Consumer goods:
    • Transportation
    • Clothing
    • Industrial products (cars, refrigerators, etc)
  • Consumer services:
    • Postal
    • Police
  • Basic human needs
    • Potable water
    • Electricity

The ratio of governmental production of goods to services varies with the type of political system.

public policies
Public Policies

Four major types:

  • Extractive:
    • Government removes resources from the domestic/international environments
  • Distributive
    • Government moves resources around its domestic/international environment
  • Regulative
    • Government uses its authority to induce behavior at individual or collective levels
  • Symbolic
    • Government uses its persuasive abilities to persuade citizens; build community.
policy profiles
Policy Profiles
  • Nightwatchman
    • Lockean state, law and order, preservation of property
  • Police
    • Intrusive regulation, severe resource extraction (coercive of citizens, must “volunteer”)
  • Welfare
    • Extensive distributive activities: health, education, employment, housing, income support (higher taxes)
  • Regulatory States
    • A response to complexity – state oversight of public and private service provision and behavior (food safety, workplace safety, etc)
  • All political systems extract from their societies (specifically) and from their environments (generally).
  • Forms:
    • Taxation
    • Direct taxes
    • Indirect taxes
  • Allocation by government of money, goods, services, honors, opportunities to groups in the society.
  • Expenditure areas:
    • Health
    • Education
    • Defense
    • Foreign aid
welfare state
Welfare State
  • A set of government, sometimes private policies in the areas of pensions, health, sickness, accident insurance, unemployment benefits, etc.
  • Private component – private donations to nonprofit organizations
  • Governmental exercise of political control over societal behavior (individual/group).
  • States policy profiles in this area vary widely – cultural interests in regulation key.
  • Methods vary: coercion, financial incentives, moral exhortation (“Just say No”)
    • Bans on use of drugs
    • Sin taxes
    • Public information campaigns
    • Regulations against abuse of citizens, animals, environment
    • Regulations to promote safety – traffic cameras, gun control, citizenship rights, etc.
community building and symbolic policies
Community Building and Symbolic Policies
  • Symbolic outputs occur for the following reasons:
    • To increase compliance (law)
    • To persuade voters (elections)
    • To accept hardship/sacrifice (service)
    • To build community/national identity/civic pride (socialization)
    • To enhance governmental legitimacy (new political structures in Iraq – 2004)
outcomes domestic welfare
Outcomes: Domestic Welfare
  • Consequences? Impact on lives?
  • Domestic actions impacted by not directly controllable international events.
  • Actions can have unintended consequences (positive or negative).
  • Important to evaluate/measure outcomes for effectiveness/desirability of policy.
outcomes domestic security
Outcomes: Domestic Security
  • Fundamental role of Government:
  • Domestic law and order most fundamental from Hobbesian view – domestic economic stability most fundamental from Lockean view.
  • In context of high crime are the fundamentals of daily life possible?
international outputs
International Outputs
  • War – global and civil conflict
    • Russia/USSR – 24 million deaths between 1900-1995
    • Third World countries
  • United Nations
    • Peacekeeping efforts
  • National security – enormous costs, on rise since 9/11
political goods and values
Political Goods and Values
  • Goods and values related at the system, process and policy levels of analysis
    • System goods reflect the functioning of the political system as a unit.
    • Process goods reflect the domestic functions of the political system components – democracy, citizen participation/political competition. (Effectiveness and efficiency are desired here).
    • Policy goods reflect the outcomes of the system components – economic welfare, security, citizen freedom (fairness).
political economic arrangements for achieving political goods
Political/Economic arrangements for achieving political goods
  • Advanced Industrial nations
    • Industrial authoritarian
      • Repressed political participation, encouraged private enterprise (economic inequality predominated) this combination generated unrest - demise of authoritarian Regimes.
    • Market oriented and social democracies
      • Taxes, welfare and regulation/size of government re-considered by both – environment new issue
political economic arrangements
Political/Economic arrangements
  • Pre-industrial nations
    • Neo-traditional
      • Saudi Arabia, rentier state selective modernization
    • Personal rule
      • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Clerico-Mobilizational regimes
      • Iran – religious authority
    • Technocratic-repressive
      • South America – business, military, civil technocrats repressed allowed economic growth
    • Technocratic-distributive
      • South Korea suppressed political participation encouraged economic re-distribution – has since expanded democracy
    • Technocratic-moblizational
      • single party political systems Mexico, Taiwan