PUBLIC POLICY • Domestic policy can only defeat us; foreign policy can kill us. John F. Kennedy • I've said very clearly, including in a State of the Union address, that I'm against 'don't ask, don't tell' and that we're going to end this policy. Barack Obama • Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood. Jimmy Carter • You do the policy, I'll do the politics. Dan Quayle
It’s what they do, but how? • Distributive- Designed to benefit a particular institution. Worthwhile to some, pork to others ( ex. 2003 Congress gave over $2 billion for universities. USC got $6.8million for virtual reality simulation to train soldiers while U of Missouri got $1.7 million to study shiitake mushrooms
Redistributional- Transferring my money to someone who does not deserve it!!!! Commies, all of them.
Regulation- Government action/rules to promote governmental/societal goals
When did this really start? • Always has been but environment, civil rights, consumer protection all new since 1950’s. • Based on: • Shared values- ex poverty- no one wants it, issue is how to deal with it • Custom and tradition- people accept it if it is Constitutional or established ( ex regulate commerce) • Events- wars, depressions call for policy ( ex. Interrogation methods post 9/11)
Like a Weed • Always growing, caused by • 1. Interest groups and their agendas- ex. Global warming • 2. Institutions- courts , bureaucracy, Pres,Senate, media • Courts- exs. 1954 ordered desegregation 1973 – abortion • Bureaucracy- Used to react, now it acts D.P Moynihan- “professionalization of reform”- Gov’t thinks up problems to solve • Pres &Senate- national politicians • Media- What came 1st, chicken or egg?
Like a Weed 2 • Political motivation play a role too. Really? Politics? Who wouldathunk it?--- Bush did not favor global warming policy until it became good politics • Does not always succeed- Bush and conservative groups forced legislation to keep terry Schiavo alive ( feeding tube) BAD public policy- Courts and public sentiment were against it. • Interest groups define agenda- “Partial birth abortion” becomes “late term abortion” “Estate tax” becomes “death tax”
Build me a policy • Agenda building- Congress must be aware of an issue- ex 9/11 created need for aviation security- Aviation Security Act of 2001 • Policy formulation- Discussed an evaluated by official and public. Congress worked with pilots, airlines, security companies, airline manufacturers
Build it 2 • Policy adoption- Compromise bill passes/ Gov’t provides security ( Senate preference) for 3 yrs. Various airports experiment with private security (House preference). • Policy implementation- Security personnel had to reapply for federal positions. Other requirements (screening etc) were implemented over time • Policy evaluation- Groups provide feedback, policies are tweaked ex. Public past security to shop!!
Future policy? • "Congress may allow Americans to start selling horse meat for human consumption. When they heard the news, McDonald's unveiled their new breakfast offering, the Sea Biscuit biscuit." –Conan O'Brien
The carrots of public policy • Promotional techniques • Subsidy- Gov’t grants of things like cash or land. Designed to get businesses, farmers etc to carry out policy. ( tax credits an example) • Contracting- Gov’t contracts are a carrot to companies to work within gov’t regulations • Licenses- A privilege granted by gov’t ex cab drivers get license, holds down competition
Not so carrot like • Regulatory techniques- • Civil penalties- Fines & other punishments for failure to comply • Criminal penalties- Fines or prison ( Bernie Madoff) • Taxation- Liquor taxes raised to reduce consumption • Expropriation- Seizing property for greater good. Eminent domain (Kelo v. City of New London- SC ruled city could take land for urban redevelopment)
Politics of Policy • MAJORITARIAN- Costs and benefits widely distributed • Ex. Social Security and defense- We all pay, we all receive. • Widely accepted • CNN poll: "Would you say that the Social Security system has been good for the country, has been bad for the country, or has had no effect on the country?" Good BadNo effectUnsure 79% 15% 5% 1%
ENTREPRENURIAL- Benefits distributed/ costs concentrated • Ex. Food safety/ auto safety • Well dang, that sounds great but can it really be concentrated costs?
CLIENT- Benefits concentrated/costs distributed • Ex. Agricultural subsidies/ welfare -often pork barrel Guy walked into the local welfare office to pick up his check. He marched straight up to the counter and said, 'Hi. You know, I just HATE drawing welfare. I'd really rather have a job.' The social worker behind the counter said, 'Your timing is excellent. We just got a job opening from a very wealthy old man who wants a chauffeur and bodyguard for his beautiful daughter. You'll have to drive around in his Mercedes, and he'll supply all of your clothes. Because of the long hours, meals will be provided. You'll be expected to escort the daughter on her overseas vacations. You will be given be a free apartment. The salary is $200,000 a year.'The guy, wide-eyed, said, 'You're bull crappin’ me!'The social worker said, 'Yeah, well . . . you started it.
INTEREST GROUP- Costs and benefits concentrated • Ex. Employer requirements for work safety such as coal mines. Do we absorb that cost as well?
This is the public policy we often get. • So, what type of policy is this and why does it persist ?