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Module 9 Classical Conditioning

Module 9 Classical Conditioning

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Module 9 Classical Conditioning

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  1. Module 9Classical Conditioning

  2. Learning • A relatively enduring or permanent change in behavior that results from previous experience with certain stimuli and responses. • Behavior includes both unobservable mental events (thoughts, images) and observable responses (fainting, salivating, vomiting)

  3. 3 Kinds of Learning • Classical Conditioning • Kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus • Operant Conditioning • Kind of learning in which the consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior’s occurrence in the future • Law of Effect (Actions followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened) • Cognitive Learning • Kind of learning that involves mental processes, such as attention and memory • May be learned through observation or imitation • May not involve any external rewards

  4. Classical Conditioning Activity We need a volunteer! 20 3

  5. Important Terms • Stimulus: Something in the environment to which an organism responds • Response: Reaction to a stimulus

  6. Select Stimulus & Response • Neutral Stimulus • Some stimulus that causes a sensory response, but does not produce the reflex being tested • Bell does not normally cause Sam to salivate • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Some stimulus that triggers a physiological reflex, such as salivation or eye blink • When presented to Sam, food causes him to salivate • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • An unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is elicited by the UCS

  7. Establishing Classical Conditioning • Trial • Common procedure used in classical conditioning • Present both stimuli • Typical trial • Pair the neutral stimulus (tone) with the UCS (food) • Tone + Food = UCR (Salivation)

  8. Testing For Conditioning • After 10 to 100 trials, test for the occurrence of classical conditioning • Present the CS (tone) without the UCS (food) • Conditioned stimulus (CS) • Formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that was previously elicited by the UCS • Conditioned response (CR) • Elicited by the CS • CR is similar to, but not identical in size or amount to, the UCR

  9. Labeling Activity UCS, UCR, CS, & CR

  10. Scenario 1 • A man wearing purple gloves snatched Sandra’s purse. Now, whenever Sandra sees someone with purple gloves, she feels tense. • What was Sandra’s learned response? CR • Feeling tense • What would naturally cause this response for Sandra? UCS • Getting purse snatched • What did Sandra learn to associate with this response? CS • Purple gloves

  11. Scenario 2 • One of the best memories Jim had growing up was when he and his father would drink iced tea and talk. Now, every time Jim drinks iced tea, he thinks about those times and feels happy. • What was Jim’s learned response? CR • Feeling happy • What would naturally cause this response for Jim? UCS • Talking with his father • What did Jim learn to associate with this response? CS • Drinking iced tea

  12. Scenario 3 • Whenever Fred kissed Marilyn, he would get a whiff of her very bad breath. Since that time, even though she now uses mouthwash, when he puckers up to kiss her he involuntarily winces as if in pain. • What was Fred’s learned response? CR • Wincing • What would naturally cause this response for Fred? UCS • Smelling bad breath • What did Fred learn to associate with this response? CS • Kissing Marilyn

  13. Scenario 4 • Peggy was playing with a small black bug. When her mother saw it, she started screaming, frightening Peggy. Now, whenever Peggy sees a bug, she becomes frightened. • What was Peggy’s learned response? CR • Feeling frightened • What would naturally cause this response for Peggy? UCS • Mother screaming • What did Peggy learn to associate with this response? CS • Bugs

  14. Other Conditioning Concepts • Generalization • Tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original CS to elicit a response that is similar to the CR • Carla may also experience anxiety when smelling her own hair shampoo because it is similar to the dentist’s aftershave • Discrimination • Occurs when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not others • The smell of Carla’s nail polish does not elicit feelings of anxiety • Extinction • A procedure in which a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS • Therefore, the CS no longer elicits the CR • Spontaneous Recovery • Tendency for the CR to reappear after being extinguished even though there have been no further conditioning trials

  15. How Useful is Classical Conditioning? • Adaptive value • Usefulness of certain abilities or traits that have evolved in animals and humans that increases their chance of survival • Examples include finding food, acquiring mates, and avoiding pain • Taste-aversion learning • Associating a particular sensory cue with getting sick • Thereafter avoiding that particular sensory cue • Rats quickly learn to avoid the smells or taste associated with getting sick after eating poisonous bait • Preparedness • Animals and humans are biologically prepared to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others

  16. Conditioned Emotional Response • Feeling some positive or negative emotion when experiencing a stimulus that initially accompanied a pleasant or painful event • Little Albert • Many couples have a special song that becomes emotionally associated with their relationship

  17. Can Emotional Responses Be Conditioned? • John Watson tried to classically condition an emotional response in a young child named Little Albert • He presented a white rat followed by a loud noise that elicited a startle and crying Source: PhotoDisc, Inc. • Albert developed an emotional response (fear) to the white rat Source: PhotoDisc, Inc.

  18. Watson’s Little Albert Example • Generalization • Even Furry White Bunnies (initially a neutral stimulus) • After conditioning with a similar stimulus (furry white rat) • Produce response of fear!!!

  19. Anticipatory Nausea • Feelings of nausea that are elicited by stimuli associated with nausea-inducing chemotherapy treatments • Patients experience nausea in anticipation of their treatment • Conditioning anticipatory nausea • Neutral stimulus is smell of the treatment room and Michelle’s dish detergent • US is the chemotherapy which elicits nausea & vomiting • Conditioning trials occur when the smell of the treatment room is paired with the chemotherapy • This produces the CR which is that the smell of the treatment room or the detergent elicits nausea

  20. Writing Activity 3 Examples of Classical Conditioning

  21. Activity Eyeblink 20 6

  22. Systematic Desensitization • Procedure based on classical conditioning • Person imagines or visualizes fearful or anxiety-evoking stimuli and then immediately uses deep relaxation to overcome the anxiety • Serves as a form of counterconditioning because it replaces fear with relaxation

  23. 3 Steps To Systematic Desensitization • Learn to relax • Make an anxiety hierarchy • Imagine and relax

  24. Key Terms: • Ivan Pavlov • Classical Conditioning • Acquisition • Generalization • Discrimination • Extinction • Neutral Stimulus • Unconditioned Stimulus • Unconditioned Response • Conditioned Stimulus • Conditioned Response

  25. Ivan Pavlov • Russian scientist who discovered the principles of classical conditioning • Accidental discovery! • Terms

  26. Classical Conditioning • Controlling behavior by pairing old responses to new stimuli • Type of learning or conditioning in which a response naturally elicited (brought about) by one stimulus comes to be elicited (brought about) by a different neutral stimulus • Terms

  27. Acquisition • Acquiring a new response to an originally neutral stimulus • Occurs gradually • Terms

  28. Generalization • Responding to a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus (CS) with the conditioned response (CR) without prior training • After conditioning, “Little Albert” feared furry white rats and furry white bunnies • Terms

  29. Discrimination • The ability to respond differently to different stimuli • After conditioning, “Little Albert” feared furry white rats and furry white bunnies, but did not fear blocks • He was able to ‘discriminate’ among different stimuli • Terms

  30. Extinction • A conditioned response will die out gradually without pairings • Terms

  31. Neutral Stimulus • A stimulus that does not produce a response before training/conditioning • Terms

  32. Unconditioned Stimulus • A stimulus that produces a response naturally or automatically without training/conditioning • UCS • Terms

  33. Unconditioned Response • A natural or automatic response to a stimulus • UCR • Terms

  34. Conditioned Stimulus • A stimulus that an organism has been trained/conditioned to respond to in a certain way • CS • Terms

  35. Conditioned Response • A trained/conditioned response to a particular stimulus • CR • Terms

  36. Mowrer’s Experiment • A Creative Application of Classical Conditioning… • Bedwetting • Alarm- Awakening • Full Bladder- No response

  37. Classical Conditioning PsychSim 4.0