Classical Conditioning In this session we will: Identify Behaviourism as a perspective of psychology Investigate Pavlov’s research Apply the principles of classical conditioning to everyday examples Extend the principles to extinction and generalisation Consider the case study of Little Albert in terms of behaviourism and ethics READING – Gross page 170 - 174
Ivan Pavlov • 1849 – 1936 in Russia • University of St Petersburg, research into the physiology of digestion • Main work was with digestive system of dogs • Interested in amount of enzymes produced during digestion.
Reflexes • Reflex Actions • Behaviour involving no mind processes • Digestion • Perspiration • Sudden pain
Pavlov’s Discovery • Pavlov found that digestive system in dogs could be set off by the sound of the kennel assistants. • Link
Let’s try it ourselves… • Pavlov Link
Twitmeyer • Pavlov Published in 1904 to a welcoming academic community • Edwin Twitmeyer research in USA in 1902 • Knee-jerk reflex • What are the UCS NS UCR CS CR for Twitmeyer’s demonstration?
Extinction • When CS is presented continuously with no reinforcement (i.e. bell but no food) what would you expect to happen? • Extinction takes place • Spontaneous recovery • Cognitive processes? Pavlov would not accept that dogs had cognitive processes – it was all reflex based.
Discrimination and Generalisation • Dogs and Doorbells • Territory defence response
Generalisation • Why is it that when I hear a Black and Decker drill - • One-trial learning • Rapid association between UCS (Drill in teeth) and NS Dentist drill) and UCR (Pain) • Generalises to ALL drills
Little Albert • Watson was early behaviourist • Little Albert case study was notorious • Ethical? • Albert became scared of all white furry things – why?
Poor Albert …. • Now he fears even Santa Claus! • Generalisation – famous case study.