Download
classical conditioning n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Classical Conditioning PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

155 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Classical Conditioning

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Classical Conditioning Day Two: Generalization, Discrimination, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery; Theories of Classical Conditioning

  2. From yesterday… • Every time David watches a scary movie, he eats a bowl of popcorn. Now, popcorn makes him feel scared. • Find the: • US • UR • CS • CR

  3. Generalization • Definition: the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS • Max Example: I was afraid of all dogs.

  4. Discrimination • Definition: the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other, unimportant stimuli • Max Example: I feared only dogs, not all four-legged animals. Eventually, I feared only energetic dogs.

  5. Extinction • Definition: the gradual weakening of the CR • Definition: • Max Example: Over the next ten years, no dogs bit or attacked me. I am no longer afraid of dogs.

  6. Spontaneous Recovery • Definition: tendency for the CR to reappear after being extinguished • Max Example: Last summer, I was sleeping outside, and I woke up with a dog’s front paws on my chest. For the next month, I was afraid of dogs again.

  7. When Joe came back from Iraq, he jumped at every loud noise. After fifteen years, he stopped reacting to loud noises. I got sick after eating at Señor Pancho’s. I stopped eating Mexican food. I eat at El Carambas and El Paraiso, and I don’t get sick. After that, I only avoid Señor Pancho’s. Generalization Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Six years ago, Maria got punched in the face when her brother was practicing karate. For five years after that, she flinched whenever he raised his hand. For the past year, she stopped flinching. Then, last week, her brother turned around too fast and accidentally slapped her. Maria has been flinching for the last week. Aunt Edna’s fruity perfume made me feel relaxed. Now, the smell of ANY sweet perfume makes me feel calm.

  8. Practice • Take the 7 examples we went through yesterday as a class. • For each of the 7, create a scenario that includes EITHER generalization, discrimination, extinction, or spontaneous recovery. • You can’t use the ones on the last slide. • In the end, you must have 2 generalization examples, 2 discrimination examples, 1 extinction, and 2 spontaneous recovery.

  9. WHY? Cognitive Perspective • The organism learns a predictable relationship between the US and the CS. The CS predicts the occurrence or appearance of the US. • The organism learns what to expect. • Ex: You salivate at the sight of pizza because you have learned that seeing a pizza often leads to eating one. You can predict, and your prediction leads to salivation.

  10. WHY? Contiguity Theory • Classical conditioning occurs because two stimuli (US and CS) are paired close in time (aka - are contiguous). • Ex: Because seeing pizza is paired closely in time with eating pizza, the sight alone begins the salivation

  11. WHY? Stimulus Substitution • A neural bond or association forms between the CS and the UCS. The CS becomes a substitutefor the UCS. • Ex: You salivate when you see pizza because the act of seeing a pizza (CS) has bonded in your neural networks to the pizza itself (UCS).

  12. Which one is correct? • With a partner, discuss which of the three theories you think best explains classical conditioning. • Cognitive Perspective (predicts) • Contiguity Theory (time) • Stimulus Substitution (substitutes)

  13. WHY? Stimulus Substitution • A neural bond or association forms between the CS and the UCS. The CS becomes a substitute for the UCS. • Ex: You salivate when you see pizza because the act of seeing a pizza (CS) has bonded in your neural networks to the pizza itself (UCS). • Problem: responses elicited by US are usually slightly different than those elicited by the CS

  14. WHY? Contiguity Theory • Classical conditioning occurs because two stimuli (US and CS) are paired close in time (aka - are contiguous). • Ex: Because seeing pizza is paired closely in time with eating pizza, the sight alone begins the salivation • Problem: Pairing two stimuli near each other in time is not enough to condition someone

  15. WHY? Cognitive Perspective • The organism learns a predictable relationship between the US and the CS. The CS predicts the occurrence or appearance of the US. • The organism learns what to expect. • Ex: You salivate at the sight of pizza because you have learned that seeing a pizza often leads to eating one. You can predict, and your prediction leads to salivation.

  16. One last thing… • Write out a multiple-choice question that I could use on your unit test. Include the answer. The answer must be one of the following classical conditioning terms: • Unconditioned Stimulus • Unconditioned Response • Conditioned Stimulus • Conditioned Response • Generalization • Discrimination • Extinction • Spontaneous Recovery